Genetic Variants of Uncoupling Proteins-2 and -3 in Relation to Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Different Sports.

Genetic variants of uncoupling proteins-2 and -3 in relation to maximal oxygen uptake in different sports.

Acta Biochim Pol. 2013 Mar 15;
Holdys J, Gronek P, Kry?ciak J, Stanis?awski D

Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) as mitochondrial electron transporters are involved in regulation of ATP production and energy dissipation as heat. Energy efficiency plays an important role in physical performance, especially in aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maximal oxygen uptake and genetic variants of the UCP2 and UCP3 genes. The studies were carried out in a group of 154 men and 85 women, professional athletes representing various sports and fitness levels and students of the University of Physical Education in Pozna?. Physiological and molecular procedures were used, i.e. direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and analysis of an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the 3’untranslated region of exon 8 of the UCP2 gene and a C\>T substitution in exon 5 (Y210Y) of the UCP3 gene. No statistically significant associations were found, only certain trends. Insertion allele (I) of the I/D UCP2 and the T allele of the UCP3 gene were favourable in obtaining higher VO2max level and might be considered as endurance-related alleles. HubMed – rehab


Substantial generalization of sensorimotor learning from bilateral to unilateral movement conditions.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e58495
Wang J, Lei Y, Xiong K, Marek K

Controversy exists regarding whether bimanual skill learning can generalize to unimanual performance. For example, some investigators showed that dynamic adaptation could only partially generalize between bilateral and unilateral movement conditions, while others demonstrated complete generalization of visuomotor adaptation. Here, we identified three potential factors that might have contributed to the discrepancy between the two sets of findings. In our first experiment, subjects performed reaching movements toward eight targets bilaterally with a novel force field applied to both arms, then unilaterally with the force field applied to one arm. Results showed that the dynamic adaptation generalized completely from bilateral to unilateral movements. In our second experiment, the same force field was only applied to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. Results indicated complete transfer again. Finally, our subjects performed reaching movements toward a single target with the force field or a novel visuomotor rotation applied only to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. The reduced breadth of experience obtained during bilateral movements resulted in incomplete transfer, which explains previous findings of limited generalization. These findings collectively suggest a substantial overlap between the neural processes underlying bilateral and unilateral movements, supporting the idea that bilateral training, often employed in stroke rehabilitation, is a valid method for improving unilateral performance. However, our findings also suggest that while the neural representations developed during bilateral training can generalize to facilitate unilateral performance, the extent of generalization may depend on the breadth of experience obtained during bilateral training. HubMed – rehab


Promotive effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 for epithelial sealing to titanium implants.

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2013 Mar 18;
Atsuta I, Ayukawa Y, Furuhashi A, Yamaza T, Tsukiyama Y, Koyano K

Improvement of oral epithelial adhesion to titanium (Ti) may significantly enhance the efficacy of dental implants. Here, we investigated whether insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) improved the sealing of the peri-implant epithelium (PIE) around the implant. Right maxillary first molars were extracted from rats and replaced with experimental implants. After 4 weeks of IGF-1 treatment, the implant-PIE interface exhibited a band of immunoreactive laminin-332 (Ln-5), similar to the tooth-junctional epithelium interface, that was partially absent in the untreated group. Immunoelectron microscopy showed a characteristic Ln-5-positive band including hemidesmosomes at both the apical and upper portions of the implant-PIE interface in the IGF-1-treated group. We also investigated the effects of IGF-1/PI3K inhibitors on the dynamics of rat oral epithelial cells (OECs) grown on Ti plates. In OECs cultured with IGF-1, adhesion protein expression increased, cell adherence to Ti plates was higher, and proliferation was faster, whereas migration and apoptosis were induced in the absence of IGF-1 or in the presence of both IGF-1 and a PI3K inhibitor. These data suggest that PI3K mediates the promotive effects of IGF-1, and that IGF-1 is effective at enhancing epithelial integration around Ti implants. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013. HubMed – rehab