[Genetic Aspects of the Stroop Test].

[Genetic aspects of the Stroop test].

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Neuropsychopharmacol Hung. 2012 Dec; 14(4): 252-8
Nanasi T, Katonai RE, Sasvari-Szekely M, Szekely A

Impairment of executive control functions in depression is well documented, and performance on the Stroop Test is one of the most widely used markers to measure the decline. This tool provides reliable quantitative phenotype data that can be used efficiently in candidate gene studies investigating inherited components of executive control. Aim of the present review is to summarize research on genetic factors of Stroop performance. Interestingly, only a few such candidate gene studies have been carried out to date. Twin studies show a 30-60% heritability estimate for the Stroop test, suggesting a significant genetic component. A single genome-wide association study has been carried out on Stroop performance, and it did not show any significant association with any of the tested polymorphisms after correction for multiple testing. Candidate gene studies to date pointed to the polymorphisms of several neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine) and to the role of the APOE ?4 allele. Surprisingly, little is known about the genetic role of neurothrophic factors and survival factors. In conclusion, further studies are needed for clarifying the genetic background of Stroop performance, characterizing attentional functions.
HubMed – depression


The role of general practitioners in prevention of depression-related suicides.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Neuropsychopharmacol Hung. 2012 Dec; 14(4): 245-51
Rihmer Z, Dome P, Gonda X

Suicide is a ubiquitous phenomenon present in every country, and a function of the constellation of multiple risk and protective factors. The relatively low occurrence of attempted and completed suicide in the general community makes its research and consequentially prediction and prevention difficult, however, suicide events are common among psychiatric patients who contact their general practitioners some weeks or months before their suicidal act. Major depressive episode is the most common current psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims and attempters (56-87%), and successful acute and long-term treatment of depression significantly reduces the risk of suicidal behaviour even in this high-risk population. The point prevalence of unipolar and bipolar major depressive episode encountered in general practice is more than 10% but unfortunately about half of these cases remain unrecognized, untreated or mistreated. As over half of all suicide victims contact their general practitioners within four weeks before their death, primary care physicians play a key role in suicide prediction and prevention. Several large-scale community studies show that education of general practitioners and other medical professionals on the recognition and appropriate pharmacotherapy of depression, particularly in combination with psycho-social interventions and public education significantly improves identification and treatment of depression and consequentially reduces the rate of completed and attempted suicide in the areas served by trained doctors.
HubMed – depression


Kynurenines in cognitive functions: their possible role in depression.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Neuropsychopharmacol Hung. 2012 Dec; 14(4): 239-44
Plangar I, Majlath Z, Vecsei L

Depression can originate from changes in tryptophan availability, caused by activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) as a result of inflammation. Alterations in the KP and the changing levels of its metabolites have recently been considered to be factors contributing to the pathogenesis of depression. The key molecular mediator which induces the conversion of tryptophan into kynurenine is indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase. Following its activation, both the production of neurotoxic compounds and the diminished peripheral accessibility of tryptophan are regarded as essential steps in the pathophysiological processes. The aim of this review is to survey the role of the KP in depression and its relationships with cognitive functions.
HubMed – depression


Depression and Women: An Integrative Treatment Approach

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S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine for Treatment of Depression ROB
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Depression and Its Treatment
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