[Gambling Addiction.]

[Gambling addiction.]

Nervenarzt. 2013 Mar 27;
Böning J, Meyer G, Hayer T

Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category “Substance Use and Addictive Disorders” in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64 ?% and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56?%. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly. HubMed – addiction


Drug addiction is associated with leukocyte telomere length.

Sci Rep. 2013 Mar 26; 3: 1542
Yang Z, Ye J, Li C, Zhou D, Shen Q, Wu J, Cao L, Wang T, Cui D, He S, Qi G, He L, Liu Y

Telomeres are protective chromosomal structures that play a key role in preserving genomic stability. Telomere length is known to be associated with ageing and age-related diseases. To study the impairment of telomeres induced by drug abuse, we conducted an association study in the Chinese Han population. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with addiction control status adjusted for age and gender. The results showed that drug abusers exhibited significantly shorter LTLs than controls (P = 1.32e-06). The time before relapse also presented an inverse correlation with LTL (P = 0.02). Drug abusers who had used heroin and diazepam displayed a shorter LTL than those taking other drugs (P = 0.018 and P = 0.009, respectively). Drug abusers who had ingested drugs via snuff exhibited longer LTLs than those using other methods (P = 0.02). These observations may offer a partial explanation for the effects of drug addiction on health. HubMed – addiction


Substance P mRNA expression during zebrafish development: influence of mu opioid receptor and cocaine.

Neuroscience. 2013 Mar 22;
López-Bellido R, Barreto-Valer K, Rodríguez RE

Zebrafish has emerged as an important vertebrate animal model for the study of human diseases and for developmental studies in mammals. Since there are few studies of the tachykinin 1 gene (TAC1), precursor of substance P (SP), in relation to embryonic development, we aimed to study the expression of SP transcript (mRNA) and determine the influence of cocaine and opioid receptors on the expression of this neuropeptide. In order to analyse the spatial and temporal SP mRNA expression in zebrafish, we cloned -based in human TAC1 sequence- the sequence that originates SP. Phylogenetic analyses of the precursor of SP, revealed an alignment in the fish cluster, with a clear distinction from other species (amphibians, birds and mammals). qPCR results showed that SP mRNA was expressed in several stages of embryonic development, where it increased progressively from gastrula-8hpf (hour post-fertilization) to the end of the embryogenesis-72hpf. SP mRNA was expressed mainly in the spinal cord in embryos at 20-30 hpf, whereas at 36, 42 and 48 hpf embryos SP mRNA was expressed mainly in the central nervous system (CNS) telencephalon, diencephalon, hypothalamus, rhombomeres, epiphysis and in peripheral areas (heart and somites). Exposure of embryos to 1.5 ?M cocaine altered the SP mRNA expression of at 24 (increasing) and 48 hpf (decreasing). We also report that knockdown of ?-opioid receptor induced an increase of SP mRNA expression while the knockdown of the two delta opioid receptors did not produce changes in SP mRNA expression. In conclusion, SP mRNA in zebrafish is expressed during embryonic development in the CNS and peripherally, suggesting that SP would play a critical role during embryogenesis. Furthermore, cocaine exposure and the knockdown of ?-opioid receptor affect the SP mRNA expression. These observations can be important in the pain and addiction field where SP is involved. HubMed – addiction


[Tobacco use and illicit substance use disorders: What should we have to do?]

Presse Med. 2013 Mar 22;
Karila L, Petit A, Zarmdini R, Coscas S, Lowenstein W, Reynaud M

Tobacco use is a commonplace phenomenon in our society. Its use is responsible for more death and disease than any other noninfectious cause. More deaths are caused each year by tobacco use than by all deaths from HIV, illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, and murders combined. Tobacco remains responsible for greater morbidity than alcohol and all other drugs combined. Tobacco dependence is highly prevalent among drug-dependent patients. Substance abuse patients smoke more and are more vulnerable to the effects of smoking than general populations. Traditional substance abuse therapeutic programs too frequently focus only on treatment of alcohol or other drugs rather than including treatment for tobacco dependence. Currently, there are no official medical recommendations for the treatment of tobacco addiction in illicit polysubstance users. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search from a range of electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Google Scholar) was conducted for the period from 1988 to September 2012, using the following keywords alone or in combination: tobacco, nicotine, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, opiates, substance abuse, substance dependence, addiction, treatment. There were no restrictions on the identification or inclusion of studies in terms of publication status, language and design type. RESULTS: Our literature review will focus on epidemiological, neurobiological, clinical interactions between tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs. It will also focus on therapeutic programs in this dual addictive disorder. The aim of this literature review is to make proposals for the treatment of tobacco addiction in polysubstance users entering in specific therapeutic programs. HubMed – addiction