Firearm Possession Among Adolescents Presenting to an Urban Emergency Department for Assault.

Firearm Possession Among Adolescents Presenting to an Urban Emergency Department for Assault.

Pediatrics. 2013 Jul 8;
Carter PM, Walton MA, Newton MF, Clery M, Whiteside LK, Zimmerman MA, Cunningham RM

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Firearm violence is a leading cause of death among youth. The objectives of this study were (1) determine firearm possession rates and associated correlates among youth seeking care for assault in an emergency department (ED); (2) understand differences in risk factors for youth with firearm possession; and (3) identify firearm possession characteristics in this population: type, reason for possession, and source of firearms.METHODS:Youth (14 to 24 years old) presenting to a Level 1 ED with assault were administered a computerized screening survey. Validated instruments were administered, measuring demographics, firearm rates and characteristics, attitudes toward aggression, substance use, and previous violence history.RESULTS:Among 689 assault-injured youth, 23% reported firearm possession in the past 6 months. Only 17% of those reporting firearm possession obtained the gun from a legal source; 22% reported ownership of highly lethal automatic/semiautomatic weapons and 37.1% reported having a firearm for protection. Logistic regression analysis identified significant correlates of firearm possession, including male gender, higher socioeconomic status, illicit drug use, recent serious fight, and retaliatory attitudes.CONCLUSIONS:ED assault-injured youth had high rates of firearm possession (23.1%), most of which were not obtained from legal sources. Youth with firearm possession were more likely to have been in a recent serious fight, and to endorse aggressive attitudes that increase their risk for retaliatory violence. Future prevention efforts should focus on minimizing illegal firearm access among high-risk youth, nonviolent alternatives to retaliatory violence, and substance use prevention. HubMed – drug


Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy in an Infant With an Adrenocortical Tumor.

Pediatrics. 2013 Jul 8;
Hauser J, Riedl S, Michel-Behnke I, Minkov M, Perneczky E, Horcher E

Nonfamilial cardiomyopathies in childhood have been only sporadically ascribed to endocrine disorders. We report on a 4-month-old male infant presenting with Cushing’s syndrome associated with excessive body weight (8.9 kg; >97th percentile) and features of virilization (Tanner stage 2 for pubic hair development). Abdominal sonography showed a large adrenal tumor. Echocardiography revealed myocardial hypertrophy with severe subaortic obstruction. Blood tests showed excessive androgen and cortisol serum levels with absent circadian rhythm as well as suppressed corticotropin. Urine catecholamine levels were within the normal range. Tumor resection with general anesthesia was performed after preparation with antihypertensive and anticongestive drug therapy. Continuous intravenous hydrocortisone substitution was started intraoperatively and subsequently tapered and switched to oral administration after 12 days. A gradual reduction in glucocorticoid substitution and its discontinuation after a total duration of 9 months were well tolerated. Histopathologic workup revealed an adrenocortical tumor of intermediate dignity. Postoperative tumor staging excluded both residual primary tumor and metastases. Both a normalization of body weight and myocardial mass were observed. The present article is, to our knowledge, the first to describe severe hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy caused by an adrenocortical tumor and provides novel detailed data on postoperative glucocorticoid management. HubMed – drug


Strategies for More Rapid Translation of Cellular Therapies for Children: A US Perspective.

Pediatrics. 2013 Jul 8;
Sanchez R, Silberstein LE, Lindblad RW, Welniak LA, Mondoro TH, Wagner JE

Clinical trials for pediatric diseases face many challenges, including trial design, accrual, ethical considerations for children as research subjects, and the cost of long-term follow-up studies. In September 2011, the Production Assistance for Cellular Therapies Program, funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health, sponsored a workshop, “Cell Therapy for Pediatric Diseases: A Growing Frontier,” with the overarching goal of optimizing the path of discovery in research involving novel cellular therapeutic interventions for debilitating pediatric conditions with few or no available treatment options. Academic and industry investigators in the fields of cellular therapy and regenerative medicine described the obstacles encountered in conducting a clinical trial from concept to conclusion. Patient and parent advocates, bioethicists, biostatisticians, regulatory representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration, and translational scientists actively participated in this workshop, seeking to identify the unmet needs specific to cellular therapies and treatment of pediatric diseases and propose strategies to facilitate the development of novel therapies. In this article we summarize the obstacles and potential corrective strategies identified by workshop participants to maximize the speed of cell therapy translational research for childhood diseases. HubMed – drug


7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin inhibits A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis via suppression of Akt/NF-?B signaling.

Exp Ther Med. 2013 Jun; 5(6): 1770-1774
Wang Y, Li CF, Pan LM, Gao ZL

The Akt/NF-?B pathways are involved in numerous anti-apoptotic and drug-resistance events that occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, the role of 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin in the regulation of the anti-apoptotic Akt and NF-?Bp65 signaling pathways was explored. A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin with a final concentration of 25, 50 and 100 ?mol/l for 48 h. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein expression, respectively. The MTT assay was performed to detect cell proliferation. The results demonstrated that anti-apoptotic phospho-Akt1 (pAkt1), phospho-I?B? (pI?B?), NF-?Bp65 and Bcl-2 were inhibited and pro-apoptotic caspase-3 was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner. At a concentration of 100 ?mol/l, the anti-apoptotic NF-?Bp65 and Bcl-2 mRNA expression levels decreased 0.12 (5.82/48.5, treated/control)-fold and 0.17 (6.7/39.4, treated/control)-fold, respectively. The pro-apoptotic caspase-3 mRNA was upregulated 4.43 (39.4/8.9, treated/control)-fold. The anti-apoptotic pAkt1, pI?B?, NF-?Bp65 and Bcl-2 proteins were downregulated, with blot grayscale values of 7.3 (vs. 52.4 control), 4.3 (vs. 42.2 control), 5.08 (vs. 44.5 control) and 5.92 (vs. 38.5 control), respectively. The proapoptotic caspase-3 was upregulated to a blot grayscale value of 27.8 (vs. 5.8 control). The proliferative activity of A549 cells was reduced significantly compared with that of the control cells (83.7, 27.2 and 9.5 vs. 100%, respectively; P<0.05 for each). 7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis via suppression of Akt/NF-?B signaling in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. 7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin may be a candidate naturally-occurring drug for the treatment and prevention of lung adenocarcinoma. HubMed – drug



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