Find Novel Dual-Agonist Drugs for Treating Type 2 Diabetes by Means of Cheminformatics.

Find novel dual-agonist drugs for treating type 2 diabetes by means of cheminformatics.

Drug Des Devel Ther. 2013; 7: 279-88
Liu L, Ma Y, Wang RL, Xu WR, Wang SQ, Chou KC

The high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the world as well as the increasing reports about the adverse side effects of the existing diabetes treatment drugs have made developing new and effective drugs against the disease a very high priority. In this study, we report ten novel compounds found by targeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) using virtual screening and core hopping approaches. PPARs have drawn increasing attention for developing novel drugs to treat diabetes due to their unique functions in regulating glucose, lipid, and cholesterol metabolism. The reported compounds are featured with dual functions, and hence belong to the category of dual agonists. Compared with the single PPAR agonists, the dual PPAR agonists, formed by combining the lipid benefit of PPAR? agonists (such as fibrates) and the glycemic advantages of the PPAR? agonists (such as thiazolidinediones), are much more powerful in treating diabetes because they can enhance metabolic effects while minimizing the side effects. This was observed in the studies on molecular dynamics simulations, as well as on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, that these novel dual agonists not only possessed the same function as ragaglitazar (an investigational drug developed by Novo Nordisk for treating type 2 diabetes) did in activating PPAR? and PPAR?, but they also had more favorable conformation for binding to the two receptors. Moreover, the residues involved in forming the binding pockets of PPAR? and PPAR? among the top ten compounds are explicitly presented, and this will be very useful for the in-depth conduction of mutagenesis experiments. It is anticipated that the ten compounds may become potential drug candidates, or at the very least, the findings reported here may stimulate new strategies or provide useful insights for designing new and more powerful dual-agonist drugs for treating type 2 diabetes. HubMed – drug


Phentermine and topiramate for the management of obesity: a review.

Drug Des Devel Ther. 2013; 7: 267-78
Cosentino G, Conrad AO, Uwaifo GI

Obesity is now a major public health concern worldwide with increasing prevalence and a growing list of comorbidities and complications. The morbidity, mortality and reduced productivity associated with obesity and its complications result in a major burden to health care costs. Obesity is a complex chronic medical syndrome often with multiple different etiologic factors in individual patients. The long term successful management of obesity remains particularly challenging and invariably requires a multifaceted approach including lifestyle and behavioral modification, increased physical activity, and adjunctive pharmacotherapy. Bariatric surgery remains a last resort though at present it has the best results for achieving sustained robust weight loss. Obesity pharmacotherapy has been very limited in its role for long term obesity management because of the past history of several failed agents as well as the fact that presently available agents are few, and generally utilized as monotherapy. The recent FDA approval of the fixed drug combination of phentermine and extended release topiramate (topiramate-ER) (trade name Qsymia™) marks the first FDA approved combination pharmacotherapeutic agent for obesity since the Phen-Fen combination of the 1990s. This review details the history and clinical trial basis for the use of both phentermine and topiramate in obesity therapeutics as well as the results of clinical trials of their combination for obesity treatment in humans. The initial clinical approval trials offer evidence that this fixed drug combination offers synergistic potential for effective, robust and sustained weight loss with mean weight loss of at least 10% of baseline achieved and sustained for up to 2 years in over 50% of subjects treated. It is anticipated that this agent will be the first in a new trend of multi-agent combination therapy for the chronic adjunctive management of obesity. HubMed – drug