Fenobam Sulfate Inhibits Cocaine-Taking and Cocaine-Seeking Behavior in Rats: Implications for Addiction Treatment in Humans.

Fenobam sulfate inhibits cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats: implications for addiction treatment in humans.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Apr 25;
Keck TM, Yang HJ, Bi GH, Huang Y, Zhang HY, Srivastava R, Gardner EL, Newman AH, Xi ZX

RATIONALE: The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) has been reported to be critically involved in drug reward and addiction. Because the mGluR5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) and 3-((2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) significantly inhibit addictivelike behaviors of cocaine and other drugs of abuse in experimental animals, it has been suggested that mGluR5 NAMs may have translational potential for treatment of addiction in humans. However, neither MPEP nor MTEP have been evaluated in humans due to their off-target actions and rapid metabolism. OBJECTIVES: Herein, we evaluate a potential candidate for translational addiction research: a new sulfate salt formulation of fenobam, a selective mGluR5 NAM that has been investigated in humans. RESULTS: In rats, fenobam sulfate had superior pharmacokinetics compared to the free base, with improved maximal plasma concentration (C max) and longer half life. Oral (p.o.) administration of fenobam sulfate (30 or 60 mg/kg) inhibited intravenous (i.v.) cocaine self-administration, cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior, and cocaine-associated cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. Fenobam sulfate also inhibited p.o. sucrose self-administration and sucrose-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking behavior, but had no effect on locomotion. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides additional support for the role of mGluR5 signaling in cocaine addiction and suggests that fenobam sulfate may have translational potential in medication development for the treatment of cocaine addiction in humans. HubMed – addiction


Psychosocial Profile of Iranian Adolescents’ Internet Addiction.

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2013 Apr 24;
Ahmadi K, Saghafi A

Abstract In the present study, factors that could play an important role in Internet addiction (IA) in 4,177 Iranian high school and secondary school adolescents (age range: 14-19 years) were examined. Data for the present study were gathered through Young’s IA test, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and family relationship questionnaires distributed between high school and secondary school students in different demographic regions, carefully selected using multistage sampling techniques. Among the study participants, 21.1% of the students were in some way victims of IA, among whom 1.1% had significant problematic symptoms. Familial relationships was the most important factor related to IA; religious beliefs, moreover, was the second most important factor. The father’s level of education was more important than that of the mother’s by nearly twice as much. Other factors had important roles in the kind of Internet use, but not as much as the above mentioned factors. The findings of this study could help parents, school counselors, and teachers to pay more attention to excessive Internet use in adolescents and propose possible solutions. HubMed – addiction


The Edmonton Classification System for Cancer Pain: Comparison of Pain Classification Features and Pain Intensity Across Diverse Palliative Care Settings in Eight Countries.

J Palliat Med. 2013 Apr 24;
Nekolaichuk CL, Fainsinger RL, Aass N, Hjermstad MJ, Knudsen AK, Klepstad P, Currow DC, Kaasa For The European Palliative Care Research Collaborative Epcrc S

Abstract Background: Standardized approaches for assessing and classifying cancer pain are required to improve treatment of patients with complex pain profiles. The Edmonton Classification System for Cancer Pain (ECS-CP) offers a starting point for the evolution of a standardized international classification system for cancer pain and was introduced into multisite research initiatives of the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative (EPCRC). Objectives: The primary purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of the five ECS-CP pain classification features: pain mechanism, incident pain, psychological distress, addictive behavior, and cognition-in a diverse international sample of patients with advanced cancer. Methods: A total of 1070 adult patients with advanced cancer were recruited from 17 sites in Norway, the United Kingdom, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Canada, and Australia; 1051 of 1070 patients were evaluable. A clinician completed the ECS-CP for each enrolled patient. Additional information, including pain intensity, were also collected through patient self-reports, using touch-sensitive computers. Results: Of 1051 evaluable patients, 670 (64%) were assessed by a clinician as having cancer pain: nociceptive pain (n=534; 79.7%); neuropathic pain (n=113; 16.9%); incident pain (n=408; 60.9%); psychological distress (n=212; 31.6%); addictive behavior (n=30; 4.5%); normal cognition (n=616; 91.9%). The prevalence of ECS-CP features and pain intensity scores (11-item scale; 0=none, 10=worst; rated as now) varied substantially across sites and locations of care. Conclusion: The ECS-CP is a clinically relevant systematic framework, which is able to detect differences in salient pain classification features across diverse settings and countries. Further validation studies need to be conducted in varied advanced cancer and palliative care settings to advance the development of the ECS-CP toward an internationally recognized pain classification system. HubMed – addiction