Fatty Acid Biosynthesis and Lipogenic Enzyme Activities in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil.

Fatty acid biosynthesis and lipogenic enzyme activities in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers fed supplementary palm oil or soybean oil.

J Anim Sci. 2013 Mar 5;
Choi SH, Gang GO, Sawyer JE, Johnson BJ, Kim KH, Choi CW, Smith SB

We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipocyte differentiation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers, and that soybean oil supplementation would depress adipocyte differentiation. Twenty-eight Angus steers were assigned randomly to three groups of 9 or 10 steers and fed a basal diet without additional fat (control), with 3% palm oil (rich in palmitic acid), or with 3% soybean oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), for 10 wk, top-dressed daily. Palm oil had no effect on ADG, ADI, or G:F, whereas soybean oil depressed ADG (P = 0.02), ADI (P = 0.04) and G:F (P = 0.05). Marbling scores tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in palm oil-fed steers (Modest09) than in soybean oil-fed steers (Small55). Subcutaneous adipocyte mean volume was greater in palm oil-fed steers (515.9 p) than in soybean-supplemented cattle (395.6 pL; P = 0.01). Similarly, glucose and acetate incorporation into total lipids in vitro was greater in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers (119.9 and 242.8 nmol•3h-1•105 cells, respectively) than adipose tissue of soybean oil-fed steers in (48.9 and 95.8 nmol•3h-1•105 cells, respectively). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activities were greater (P ? 0.05) in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in adipose tissue of control steers. Palm oil did not increase palmitic acid or decrease oleic acid in subcutaneous adipose tissue or longissimus muscle, but decreased (P ? 0.05) myristoleic, palmitoleic, and cis-vaccenic acid in adipose tissue, indicating a depression in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity. Soybean oil increased the proportion of ?-linolenic acid in adipose tissue and muscle and increased linoleic acid and 18:1trans-10 in muscle. We conclude that palm oil supplementation promoted lipid synthesis in adipose tissue without depressing feed efficiency or increasing the palmitic acid content of beef. HubMed – depression


Correlates of elevated distress thermometer scores in breast cancer patients.

Support Care Cancer. 2013 Mar 6;
Agarwal J, Powers K, Pappas L, Buchmann L, Anderson L, Gauchay L, Rich A

PURPOSE: Distress is prevalent in breast cancer patients and can be detrimental to quality of life, performance status, treatment adherence, and satisfaction with medical care. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network developed the distress thermometer (DT) as a self-assessment tool for screening distress in cancer patients. Given time and financial constraints, it is important to refine screening criteria to identify patients with elevated risk for distress. In this study, we identify clinical and epidemiological factors that are associated with an increased likelihood of elevated DT scores (?4 and ?7). METHODS: We assessed 229 female patients with the DT at their initial consultation for breast cancer at the Huntsman Cancer Hospital between September 2007 and December 2008. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to analyze DT and patient data. RESULTS: Patients undergoing their initial distress thermometer screening within 30 days of receiving a diagnosis of breast cancer had the highest likelihood of scoring ?4 and ?7 on the DT screening tool. Emotional and physical concerns were associated with scores ?4 and scores ?7. Spiritual concerns became significant in patients reporting scores ?7. Patients who were non-Caucasian, unemployed, had a prior history of depression, presented for recurrent disease, or who had been recently diagnosed had a higher likelihood of scores ?4 and scores ?7. CONCLUSIONS: Four groups of patients should be targeted for aggressive screening; patients with a prior diagnosis of depression, patients presenting with recurrent disease, unemployed patients, and non-Caucasian patients. Interventions should address physical, emotional, and spiritual concerns. HubMed – depression


Patients Utilizing a Free Clinic: Physical and Mental Health, Health Literacy, and Social Support.

J Community Health. 2013 Mar 5;
Kamimura A, Christensen N, Tabler J, Ashby J, Olson LM

This cross sectional study assessed the physical and mental health, health literacy and social support of the uninsured utilizing a free clinic to develop intervention programs and research projects to improve the health of free clinic patients. Free clinics are nonprofit organizations that provide underserved and uninsured individuals access to a broad array of free or low cost healthcare services. English or Spanish speaking patients (N = 187) aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Physical, mental and oral health, health literacy, and social support were measured using standardized instruments. Eighty-two participants (45 US born and 37 non-US born) chose the English version of the survey (English speakers) while 105 participants (2 US born and 103 non-US born) chose the Spanish version (Spanish speakers). Overall, both the physical and mental health functioning of the participants was lower than that of the US general population. The participants reported being moderately depressed. US-born English speakers reported the poorest physical and mental health while Spanish speakers reported the best physical health and the lowest level of depression. A higher level of health literacy was associated with better physical health functioning, whereas reporting higher social support was associated with better mental health functioning and less severe depression. Because most free clinics have limited resources, developing services and programs that fit free clinics’ circumstances are needed. Our study finding indicates that health literacy education, mental health services, and social support are key services needed by free clinic patients to achieve better health. HubMed – depression