Factors Predicting Severe Childhood Obesity in Kindergarteners.

Factors predicting severe childhood obesity in kindergarteners.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Nov 13;
Flores G, Lin H

Background:Severe obesity has increased >300% in US children since 1976, and is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and high adult obesity rates.Objective:The objective of this study was to identify predictors of severe obesity in kindergarteners.Methods:Multivariable logistic regression and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) were used to identify prenatal/pregnancy, infant, and early childhood predictors of severe kindergarten obesity (body mass index (BMI) ?99th percentile) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort, a nationally representative longitudinal study that followed children from birth through kindergarten.Results:For the 6800 children, the severe kindergarten obesity prevalence was 5.7%, with higher adjusted odds for crossing the 85th percentile of BMI at 2 years old (odds ratio (OR), 8.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.1-15.7), preschool age (OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 4.9-12.8) and 9 months old (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6); maternal severe obesity (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.9-5.8) and gestational diabetes (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5-5.5); drinking tea or coffee between meals/before bedtime at 2 years old (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.3-8.5); Latino (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7) and multiracial (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.8) race/ethnicity; and drinking sugary beverages at kindergarten age at least weekly (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7). Ever-attending center-based daycare (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9), eating fruit at least weekly at kindergarten age (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), and maternal history of a prior newborn birth weight ?4000?g (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.02-0.6) were associated with reduced odds of severe obesity. RPA identified low severe obesity prevalence (1.9%) for non-85th BMI-percentile preschool crossers and high severe obesity (56-80%) for predictor clusters which included crossing the 85th BMI percentile at earlier ages, low parental education, specific maternal age cutoffs, preschooler bedtime rules, and outside walking/play frequency for 9-month-olds.Conclusions:Certain parental, prenatal/pregnancy, infant, and early childhood factors, both alone and in combination, are potent predictors of severe obesity in kindergarteners.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 13 November 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.168.
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RivR is a negative regulator of virulence factor expression in the group A Streptococcus.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Infect Immun. 2012 Nov 12;
Treviño J, Liu Z, Cao TN, Ramirez-Peña E, Sumby P

The bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human diseases ranging from self-limiting pharyngitis (a.k.a. strep throat) to the severely invasive necrotizing fasciitis (a.k.a. the flesh-eating syndrome). To control virulence factor expression, GAS utilizes both protein and RNA-based mechanisms of regulation. Here, we report that the transcription factor RivR (RofA-like protein IV) negatively regulates the abundance of mRNAs encoding the hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis proteins (hasABC; ?7-fold) and the protein-G-related ?(2)-macroglobulin-binding protein (grab; ?29-fold). Our data differs significantly from that of a previous study into the RivR regulon. Given that grab and hasABC are also negatively regulated by the two-component system CovR/S (control of virulence) we tested whether RivR functioned through CovR/S. A comparison of riv and cov single and double mutant strains identified that RivR requires CovR activity for grab and hasABC regulation. Analysis of the upstream region of rivR identified a novel promoter, the deletion of which reduced rivR mRNA abundance by 70%. A rivR mutant strain had a reduced ability to adhere to human keratinocytes relative to the parental and complemented strains, a phenotype that was abolished upon GAS pre-treatment with hyaluronidase, highlighting the importance of capsule regulation by RivR during colonization. The rivR mutant strain was also attenuated for virulence in a murine model of bacteremia infection. Thus, we identify RivR as an important regulator of GAS virulence and provide new insight into the regulatory networks controlling virulence factor production in this pathogen.
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Factors across home, work, and school domains influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional college students.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Nutr Res. 2012 Oct; 32(10): 757-63
Quintiliani LM, Bishop HL, Greaney ML, Whiteley JA

Nontraditional college students (older, part-time, and/or working) have less healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors compared to traditional students, yet few health promotion efforts focus on nontraditional students. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to explore factors affecting nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional students. Fourteen semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with nontraditional undergraduate students attending a large university. The sample had a median age of 25 (range, 21-64), 57% were men, 43% were racial/ethnic minorities, and 57% were employed (mean 22 hours/week). Data were coded using a systematic team-based approach. Consistent themes (mentioned by 4+ students) were identified and categorized into three domains: home, work, and school. Home (themes: neighborhood characteristics, family, partners), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: cafeteria, vending machines) factors consistently influenced positive nutrition behaviors. Similarly, home (themes: neighborhood including safety, friends from home, partner,), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: not having a car, campus structure, campus gym, friends at school) factors consistently influenced positive physical activity. Financial resources and perceptions of autonomy had influence across domains. Results indicate consistent influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors across home, work, and school domains for nontraditional college students. Study findings suggest possible, and sometimes unconventional, intervention strategies to promote healthful eating and physical activity. For example, when cafeteria meal plans are not offered and financial constraints limit eating at the cafeteria, encouraging healthful choices from vending machines could be preferable to not eating at all.
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