Exercise as a Novel Treatment for Drug Addiction: A Neurobiological and Stage-Dependent Hypothesis.

Exercise as a novel treatment for drug addiction: A neurobiological and stage-dependent hypothesis.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Jun 24;
Lynch WJ, Peterson AB, Sanchez V, Abel J, Smith MA

Physical activity, and specifically exercise, has been suggested as a potential treatment for drug addiction. In this review, we discuss clinical and preclinical evidence for the efficacy of exercise at different phases of the addiction process. Potential neurobiological mechanisms are also discussed focusing on interactions with dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling and chromatin remodeling in the reward pathway. While exercise generally produces an efficacious response, certain exercise conditions may be either ineffective or lead to detrimental effects depending on the level/type/timing of exercise exposure, the stage of addiction, the drug involved, and the subject population. During drug use initiation and withdrawal, its efficacy may be related to its ability to facilitate dopaminergic transmission, and once addiction develops, its efficacy may be related to its ability to normalize glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling and reverse drug-induced changes in chromatin via epigenetic interactions with BDNF in the reward pathway. We conclude with future directions, including the development of exercise-based interventions alone or as an adjunct to other strategies for treating drug addiction. HubMed – addiction


Needs of the hidden homeless – no longer hidden: a pilot study.

Public Health. 2013 Jun 24;
Crawley J, Kane D, Atkinson-Plato L, Hamilton M, Dobson K, Watson J

The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the health, housing and social service needs of the hidden homeless. It has been estimated that 80% of all people experiencing homelessness are hidden homeless, and because they remain ‘hidden’, resources are not allocated to provide this vulnerable population with support.This was a descriptive, case series research design.Participants were recruited through agency referral and snowball sampling. Research ethics board (REB) approval was granted. Using descriptive statistics, information obtained from participant surveys was analysed using SPSS version 19.Thirty-four participants met the inclusion criteria and ranged from 15 to 69 years. Fifty percent of the participants reported first being homeless between 14 and 18 years of age. Participants had several comorbidities, including mental health challenges, dental and respiratory problems, and sleep disorders. Participants described several challenges with accessing adequate nutrition, and finding adequate transportation and finances, and did not list housing as a priority need. The most frequent barriers to accessing health and social services identified by participants included their personal challenges with addiction, lack of transportation, and the perceived stigma they experienced when they sought help from health and social service agencies.Findings from this study can contribute to the development of best practice guidelines and policies that specifically address the needs of this unique population. Improved allocation of resources and coordination of health and community services are cost-effective, and advance the overall health of the hidden homeless. HubMed – addiction


Exploring Attitudes Regarding Smokeless Tobacco Products for Risk Reduction.

Soc Work Public Health. 2013 Aug; 28(5): 477-495
van Zyl MA, Rodu B, Antle BF, Bledsoe LK, Sullivan DJ

Utilizing qualitative data analysis, this study focused on the attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs relating to smokeless tobacco (ST) as a reduced-risk cigarette substitute for smokers among focus groups from the general public and from the health profession. It revealed that there is a lack of awareness and understanding of ST products, which has a significant impact on overall perception of these products as acceptable substitutes. Regulatory actions regarding tobacco by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration should enhance consumers’ access to accurate information about nicotine addiction and tobacco use. HubMed – addiction


Cannabis psychosis: examining the evidence for a distinctive psychopathology in a systematic and narrative review.

Am J Addict. 2012 Nov; 21 Suppl 1: S88-98
Baldacchino A, Hughes Z, Kehoe M, Blair H, Teh Y, Windeatt S, Crome IB

Background: The term “cannabis psychosis” has become ubiquitous in the psychiatric literature. Few authors have described the precise psychopathology of this potentially distinct subtype of psychosis. Specifically, little attention has been paid to exploring whether cannabis psychosis is characterized by a psychopathology which is different from that of other types of psychosis. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature for evidence of a specific constellation of symptoms which are consistently characteristic of cannabis psychosis within an inpatient psychiatric setting and to determine whether these combine to create a psychopathology which is distinct from that of other types of psychosis. Method: Systematic review using Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Results: 13 studies of the 439 identified met the inclusion criteria. Only eight studies had sufficient internal and external validity to allow comparison in a narrative format of the psychopathology present, compared with controls. Of these eight selected studies, seven reported at least one significant difference (p < .05) in the psychopathology of the cannabis group to the control group used as a comparator. Discussion and Conclusion: This study should be interpreted with great caution and conclusions should not be generalized. These findings do not suggest that "cannabis psychosis" does not exist, only that from a psychopathological perspective it may not be qualitatively any different from other forms of psychosis. Future research in this area needs to focus on clarifying the definition or description of "cannabis psychosis" and the use of standardized robust experimental and/or observational designs to eliminate heterogeneity that may lead to inconclusive results. (Am J Addict 2012;21:S88-S98). HubMed – addiction



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