Examining the Relationship Between Food Thought Suppression and Binge Eating Disorder.

Examining the relationship between food thought suppression and binge eating disorder.

Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Jun 7;
Barnes RD, Masheb RM, White MA, Grilo CM

Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating. HubMed – eating


A double-blind, randomized pilot trial of chromium picolinate for binge eating disorder: Results of the Binge Eating and Chromium (BEACh) Study.

J Psychosom Res. 2013 Jul; 75(1): 36-42
Brownley KA, Von Holle A, Hamer RM, La Via M, Bulik CM

Chromium treatment has been shown to improve mood, appetite, and glucose regulation in various psychiatric and medical patient populations. The authors propose that chromium may be useful in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED).Twenty-four overweight adults with BED were enrolled in a 6-month double-blind placebo-controlled trial and randomly assigned to receive either 1000mcg chromium/day (“high dose”; n=8) or 600mcg chromium/day (“moderate dose”; n=9) as chromium picolinate or placebo (n=7). Mixed linear regression models were used to estimate mean change in binge frequency and related psychopathology, weight, symptoms of depression, and fasting glucose.Fasting glucose was significantly reduced in both chromium groups compared to the placebo group; similarly, numerically, but not significantly, greater reductions in binge frequency, weight, and symptoms of depression were observed in those treated with chromium versus placebo, although statistical power was limited in this pilot trial. For fasting glucose, the findings suggest a dose response with larger effects in the high dose compared to moderate dose group.These initial findings support further larger trials to determine chromium’s efficacy in maintaining normal glucose regulation, reducing binge eating and related psychopathology, promoting modest weight loss, and reducing symptoms of depression in individuals with BED. Studies designed to link the clinical effects of chromium with changes in underlying insulin, serotonin, and dopamine pathways may be especially informative. If efficacious, chromium supplementation may provide a useful, low-cost alternative to or augmentation strategy for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which have partial efficacy in BED. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00904306. HubMed – eating


Lifestyle and cancer prevention in women: knowledge, perceptions, and compliance with recommended guidelines.

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2013 Jun; 22(6): 487-93
Vidrine JI, Stewart DW, Stuyck SC, Ward JA, Brown AK, Smith C, Wetter DW

Abstract Background: Most women in the United States do not meet minimum recommendations for physical activity or fruit/vegetable consumption. Thus, many are overweight/obese and are at increased risk for cancer morbidity and mortality. This study investigated women’s perceptions about the importance of physical activity and a healthy diet in preventing cancer, perceptions of engaging in these behaviors, and whether or not the behaviors met cancer prevention recommendations. Method: A cross-sectional, national, random-digit-dialed telephone survey was conducted with 800 women, ages 18 and older. The response rate was 24.5%. Measures assessed demographics, perceived health status, beliefs about the role of physical activity and diet in cancer prevention, perceived engagement in these behaviors, and actual behaviors. Results: Only 9.9% of women who reported eating a healthy diet met minimum fruit and vegetable recommendations; 39.7% of women who reported regular physical activity met the minimum recommendation. Analyses adjusted for demographics indicated that low education was associated with reporting regular physical activity to prevent cancer, yet failing to meet the minimum recommendation (odds ratio [OR]=0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.98, p=0.01). Racial/ethnic minority status was marginally significantly associated with reporting eating a healthy diet to prevent cancer, yet failing to consume sufficient fruits and vegetables (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 0.99-8.71, p=0.05). Conclusions: Most women who reported eating a healthy diet and being physically active to prevent cancer failed to meet the minimum cancer prevention recommendations. Furthermore, low socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic minority women may be particularly vulnerable to discrepancies between beliefs and behavior. HubMed – eating


Autonomy support and control in weight management: What important others do and say matter.

Br J Health Psychol. 2013 Jun 10;
Ng JY, Ntoumanis N, Thøgersen-Ntoumani C

OBJECTIVES: Drawing from self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002, Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic-dialectical perspective. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3-33). Rochester, NY: The University of Rochester Press.), we examined how individuals’ psychological needs, motivation, and behaviours (i.e., physical activity and eating) associated with weight management could be predicted by perceptions of their important others’ supportive and controlling behaviours. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional survey design, 235 participants (mean age = 27.39 years, SD = 8.96 years) completed an online questionnaire. RESULTS: Statistical analyses showed that when important others were perceived to be more supportive, participants reported higher levels of more optimal forms of motivation for weight management, which in turn predicted more physical activity and healthy eating behaviours. In contrast, when important others were perceived to be controlling, participants reported higher levels of less optimal forms of motivation, which in turn predicted less physical activity and healthy eating behaviours, as well as more unhealthy eating behaviours. Significant indirect effects were also found from perceived support and control from important others to physical activity and eating behaviours, all in the expected directions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the importance of important others providing support and refraining from controlling behaviours in order to facilitate motivation and behaviours conducive to successful weight management. STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION: What is already known on this subject? Autonomy support is related to basic need satisfaction and autonomous motivation in the context of weight management. In turn, these variables are related to adaptive outcomes for weight management. What does this study add? Measurement of perceived controlling behaviours by important others. Measurement of perceived need thwarting. Structural model on how important others affect weight management behaviours of the individual. HubMed – eating


Dieting and the self-control of eating in everyday environments: An experience sampling study.

Br J Health Psychol. 2013 Jun 10;
Hofmann W, Adriaanse M, Vohs KD, Baumeister RF

OBJECTIVE: The literature on dieting has sparked several debates over how restrained eaters differ from unrestrained eaters in their self-regulation of healthy and unhealthy food desires and what distinguishes successful from unsuccessful dieters. We addressed these debates using a four-component model of self-control that was tested using ecological momentary assessment, long-term weight change, and a laboratory measure of inhibitory control. DESIGN: A large sample of adults varying in dietary restraint and inhibitory control (as measured by a Stroop task) were equipped with smartphones for a week. They were beeped on random occasions and provided information on their experience and control of healthy and unhealthy food desires in everyday environments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were desire strength, experienced conflict, resistance, enactment of desire, and weight change after a 4-month follow-up. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Dietary restraint was unrelated to desire frequency and strength, but associated with higher conflict experiences and motivation to use self-control with regard to food desires. Most importantly, relationships between dietary restraint and resistance, enactment of desire, and long-term weight change were moderated by inhibitory control: Compared with dieters low in response inhibition, dieters high in response inhibition were more likely to attempt to resist food desires, not consume desired food (especially unhealthy food), and objectively lost more weight over the ensuing 4 months. These results highlight the combinatory effects of aspects of the self-control process in dieters and highlight the value in linking theoretical process frameworks, experience sampling, and laboratory-based assessment in health science. STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION: What is already known on this subject? Dieting is a multifaceted process that can be viewed from the lens of self-control. Dietary restraint measures can be used to capture dieting status, but it is relatively unclear what differentiates successful from unsuccessful dieters (e.g., differences in desire frequency, desire strength, motivation, executive functions). What does this study add? A novel four-step conceptual model of self-control is applied to eating behaviour in everyday life. This model allows a fine-grained look at the self-control process in restrained eaters (dieters) as compared to non-dieters. Dieters and non-dieters do not differ in desire frequency and strength (they are not simply more tempted). Dieters high (as compared to low) in inhibitory control are more likely to engage in self-control. Dieters high (as compared to low) in inhibitory control are more likely to resist unhealthy food desires. Dieters high (as compared to low) in inhibitory control are more likely to loose weight over a 4-month period. Together, the study shows clear differences among successful and unsuccessful dieters that can be linked to differences in executive functioning (inhibitory control). The present article is one of the first studies combining a conceptual model with smartphone experience sampling to study weight control and thus paradigmatic from a methodological perspective. HubMed – eating