Evidence of Sex Differences in the Relationship Between Current Tobacco Use and Past-Year Serious Psychological Distress: 2005-2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Evidence of sex differences in the relationship between current tobacco use and past-year serious psychological distress: 2005-2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012 Dec 28;
Peiper N, Rodu B

PURPOSE: Cigarette use is highly prevalent in psychiatric populations. Studies suggest that smokeless tobacco use is not significantly associated with past-year psychiatric morbidity, with evidence that tobacco use differ among sexes. The relationships between current tobacco use and past-year serious psychological distress, major depressive episode and anxiety disorder were therefore examined. Sex differences in the aforementioned relationship were also examined. METHODS: A total of 133,221 adults from four successive independent samples of the 2005-2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health were included. Prevalence odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for demographic factors, survey year, pregnancy (women only), past-year medical morbidity, past-year psychiatric comorbidity, and past-year substance use disorders. RESULTS: No associations were demonstrated among smokeless tobacco users. Statistically significant sex differences were found for current tobacco use and serious psychological distress (p < 0.001). Both male and female smokers were significantly more likely to have serious psychological distress and anxiety disorder compared to never users, while only female smokers were more likely to have major depressive episode. The strongest associations were found for anxiety disorder among all adults as well as both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The null associations for both sexes for smokeless tobacco may support a reduced risk profile. Female cigarette smokers may be more vulnerable to subclinical distress and depression than males. Studies using other nationally representative samples are needed to confirm these data. HubMed – drug


Do we need pharmacogenetics to personalize antidepressant therapy?

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012 Dec 28;
Lanni C, Racchi M, Govoni S

This review examines the role of drug metabolism and drug target polymorphism in determining the clinical response to antidepressants. Even though antidepressants are the most effective available treatment for depressive disorders, there is still substantial need for improvement due to the slow onset of appreciable clinical improvement and the association with side effects. Moreover, a substantial group of patients receiving antidepressant therapy does not achieve remission or fails to respond entirely. Even if the large variation in antidepressant treatment outcome across individuals remains poorly understood, one possible source of this variation in treatment outcome are genetic differences. The review focuses on a few polymorphisms which have been extensively studied, while reporting a more comprehensive reference to the existing literature in table format. It is relatively easy to predict the effect of polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochromes P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19), which may be determined in the clinical context in order to explain or prevent serious adverse effects. The role of target polymorphism, however, is much more difficult to establish and may be more relevant for disease susceptibility and presentation rather than for response to therapy.
HubMed – drug


The Direct Medical Costs of Colorectal Cancer in Iran; Analyzing the Patient’s Level Data from a Cancer Specific Hospital in Isfahan.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Int J Prev Med. 2012 Dec; 3(12): 887-92
Davari M, Maracy MR, Emami MH, Taheri D, Aslani A, Givi M, Massah S

The Immense cost of cancer treatment is one of the main challenges of health care systems all over the world including Iran. The aim of this study was to analyze the direct treatment costs of colorectal cancer patients in Isfahan, Iran.In this cross sectional study, the medical records of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients admitted to the Seyyed-al-Shohada Hospital “SSH” from 2005-2010 were reviewed. The profiles of 452 patients were examined. However based on inclusion, exclusion criteria a total number of 432 profiles were analyzed. All records including age, sex, treatment processes and treatment costs were extracted from the patients’ profiles and analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test.The results showed that 56.1% of CRC patients were male. The mean age of patients suffering from CRC was 56 ± 13.4. More than Thirty-six percent of the patients were in stages 1-3 of CRC and more than half of them (64.4%) were in the 4(th) stage. The higher the stage of the cancer the higher the percentage of treatments used. 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin (5FU/LV) was the most common used chemical treatment protocol. The mean treatment cost for stage one was 10715 (±4927), for stage two 15920 (±3440), stage three 16452 (±2828) and for stage four was 16723 (±2555) US Dollars. The cost of drug treatment was the first cost driven between the medical services.CRC in Iranian population starts in younger age than people in western countries. This imposed considerable direct and indirect economic cost to the society. The direct medical cost of colorectal cancer in Iran is very higher than 38 million $ . Screening programs could reduce the economic cost of CRC significantly.
HubMed – drug


Epidemiology and risk factors of amniotic band syndrome, or ADAM sequence.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

J Prenat Med. 2012 Oct; 6(4): 59-63
Cignini P, Giorlandino C, Padula F, Dugo N, Cafà EV, Spata A

Amniotic band sequence (ABS) is the term applied to a wide range of congenital anomalies, most typically limb and digital amputations and constriction rings, that occur in association with fibrous bands (1). These alterations may be associated or not with cutaneous and visceral abnormalities.This work, which is a literature review, examines several studies that relate to cases of amniotic band syndrome (SBA). In particular, our attention was focused on the causes and pathogenesis of the SBA. These for the most part are still unknown, but from what we observe in different jobs, are due to a mechanism of vascular damage. Therefore in this paper we examine chemical risk factors, like smoking, drug use, maternal hyperglycemia, mechanical risk factors such as the puncture of the amniotic sac after amniocentesis. We also speak of the altitude as a risk factor related to blood pressure, of the increased incidence of disease in primigravid, in women with a low level of education, in which the pregnancy was not planned, and then we talk of a higher incidence in young fathers and of the role of familiarity.
HubMed – drug


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