Evening Chronotype Is Associated With Changes in Eating Behavior, More Sleep Apnea, and Increased Stress Hormones in Short Sleeping Obese Individuals.

Evening Chronotype Is Associated with Changes in Eating Behavior, More Sleep Apnea, and Increased Stress Hormones in Short Sleeping Obese Individuals.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e56519
Lucassen EA, Zhao X, Rother KI, Mattingly MS, Courville AB, de Jonge L, Csako G, Cizza G,

Short sleep duration and decreased sleep quality are emerging risk factors for obesity and its associated morbidities. Chronotype, an attribute that reflects individual preferences in the timing of sleep and other behaviors, is a continuum from morningness to eveningness. The importance of chronotype in relation to obesity is mostly unknown. Evening types tend to have unhealthy eating habits and suffer from psychological problems more frequently than Morning types, thus we hypothesized that eveningness may affect health parameters in a cohort of obese individuals reporting sleeping less than 6.5 hours per night.BASELINE DATA FROM OBESE (BMI: 38.5±6.4 kg/m2) and short sleeping (5.8±0.8 h/night by actigraphy) participants (n?=?119) of the Sleep Extension Study were analyzed (www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT00261898). Assessments included the Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire, a three-day dietary intake diary, a 14-day sleep diary, 14 days of actigraphy, and measurements of sleep apnea. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol, 24 h urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine levels, morning plasma ACTH and serum cortisol, fasting glucose and insulin, and lipid parameters were determined. Eveningness was associated with eating later in the day on both working and non-working days. Progression towards eveningness was associated with an increase in BMI, resting heart rate, food portion size, and a decrease in the number of eating occasions and HDL-cholesterol. Evening types had overtly higher 24 h urinary epinephrine and morning plasma ACTH levels, and higher morning resting heart rate than Morning types. In addition, Evening types more often had sleep apnea, independent of BMI or neck circumference.Eveningness was associated with eating later and a tendency towards fewer and larger meals and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, Evening types had more sleep apnea and higher stress hormones. Thus, eveningness in obese, chronically sleep-deprived individuals compounds the cardiovascular risk associated with obesity. HubMed – eating


Are Adolescent Treatment Studies of Eating Disorders Utilizing Clinically Relevant Samples? A Comparison of RCT and Clinic Treatment-Seeking Youth with Eating Disorders.

Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2013 Mar 11;
Stiles-Shields C, Goldschmidt AB, Lock J, Le Grange D

OBJECTIVE: To assess potential selection bias in participant recruitment for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adolescent eating disorders (EDs), we compared participants recruited for RCTs evaluating psychosocial treatments with individuals seeking fee-for-service outpatient ED treatment [clinic treatment-seeking (CTS)]. METHOD: Participants were 214 adolescents presenting to an outpatient ED research-clinical program (92.1% female; M age?=?15.4?±?1.8?years). ANOVA and chi-square tests assessed differences between CTS participants and those presenting for no-cost treatment through RCTs. A secondary analysis compared RCT participants to participants eligible for the RCTs that opted for fee-for-service treatment. RESULTS: RCT participants had greater baseline ED and general psychopathology (p?HubMed – eating


Use of genomic biology to study companion animal intestinal microbiota.

J Anim Sci. 2013 Mar 12;
Kerr KR, Beloshapka AN, Swanson KS

Although dogs and cats are quite different than many livestock species in that they have evolved by eating diets high in fat and protein and low in carbohydrates, the gastrointestinal microbiota still play a key role in the gut and overall host health of these species. Early experiments in this field used culture-based techniques to evaluate the effects of dietary ingredients, such as fibers and prebiotics, on microbiota and indices of gut health (e.g., fecal scores, pH, fermentative end-products). Such studies, however, were limited in scope and lacked precision as it pertained to the microbiota. The DNA-based techniques that have become available over the past decade have greatly upgraded research capabilities and have provided a more encompassing view of the canine and feline gastrointestinal microbiomes. High-throughput sequencing techniques that are much cheaper and faster than Sanger sequencing have been a key development in this progress. Sequence data not only allow for the identification of all microbial taxa, but also provide information regarding functional capacity when a shotgun sequencing approach is used. The few canine and feline studies that have used 454 pyrosequencing have identified the predominant microbial taxa and metabolic functions present in healthy populations, differences between healthy and diseased dog and cat populations, and the effects of diet (e.g., dietary fibers, prebiotics, protein to carbohydrate ratio) on gastrointestinal microbiota. Although these studies have provided a foundation from which to work, more research is needed to increase our general understanding of the gastrointestinal microbiome and how it impacts host health, how its composition and activity may be altered by age, genetic, or environmental factors, and test whether specific pathogens or disease signatures can be identified and used in diagnosis and(or) treatment of disease. HubMed – eating


Assessing Eating Disorder Risk: The Pivotal Role of Achievement Anxiety, Depression and Female Gender in Non-Clinical Samples.

Nutrients. 2013; 5(3): 811-828
Fragkos KC, Frangos CC

The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865) consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food) questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ?2) were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public) educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders. HubMed – eating