Evaluation of Functional Relationship Between Mouse Hippocampal Cholinergic and Nitrergic Systems in Anxiogenic-Like Behavior.

Evaluation of functional relationship between mouse hippocampal cholinergic and nitrergic systems in anxiogenic-like behavior.

Behav Pharmacol. 2013 Jun; 24(3): 229-236
Zarrindast MR, Piri M, Bananej M, Shahab Z, Zahmatkesh M

Although a body of evidence shows the crucial role of hippocampal nitrergic and cholinergic systems in the modulation of anxiety, little is known about their functional relationship with regard to anxiety. The present study investigated the relationship between intra-CA1 administration of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (mecamylamine) and a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor [N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] or its precursor (L-arginine) in anxiety-related behaviors. Mice received bilateral intra-CA1 injections of either L-NAME or L-arginine in the presence of mecamylamine and were subsequently tested in the elevated plus maze. A dose of 0.5 ?g/0.5 ?l mecamylamine bilaterally administered into CA1 did not change the percentage of open arm time (%OAT) or the percentage of open arm entries (%OAE) in the elevated plus maze task and thus was considered as a subeffective dose. Intra-CA1 administration of either L-arginine (1 and 1.5 ?g/0.5 ?l, bilaterally) or L-NAME (at 60 ng/0.5 ?l, bilaterally) decreased %OAT, which represents an anxiogenic-like effect. Coadministration of the subeffective dose of mecamylamine together with the lower doses of L-NAME (10 and 30 ng/0.5 ?l, bilaterally) or L-arginine (0.5 ?g/0.5 ?l, bilaterally) led to a decrease in %OAT and %OAE. Thus, both L-NAME and L-arginine showed anxiogenic-like effects, but the effects of mecamylamine were too small to support a functional relationship between the hippocampal cholinergic and nitrergic systems. HubMed – addiction


Activation of NFAT signaling establishes a tumorigenic microenvironment through cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms.

Oncogene. 2013 Apr 29;
Tripathi P, Wang Y, Coussens M, Manda KR, Casey AM, Lin C, Poyo E, Pfeifer JD, Basappa N, Bates CM, Ma L, Zhang H, Pan M, Ding L, Chen F

NFAT (the nuclear factor of activated T cells) upregulation has been linked to cellular transformation intrinsically, but it is unclear whether and how tissue cells with NFAT activation change the local environment for tumor initiation and progression. Direct evidence showing NFAT activation initiates primary tumor formation in vivo is also lacking. Using inducible transgenic mouse systems, we show that tumors form in a subset of, but not all, tissues with NFATc1 activation, indicating that NFAT oncogenic effects depend on cell types and tissue contexts. In NFATc1-induced skin and ovarian tumors, both cells with NFATc1 activation and neighboring cells without NFATc1 activation have significant upregulation of c-Myc and activation of Stat3. Besides known and suspected NFATc1 targets, such as Spp1 and Osm, we have revealed the early upregulation of a number of cytokines and cytokine receptors, as key molecular components of an inflammatory microenvironment that promotes both NFATc1(+) and NFATc1(-) cells to participate in tumor formation. Cultured cells derived from NFATc1-induced tumors were able to establish a tumorigenic microenvironment, similar to that of the primary tumors, in an NFATc1-dependent manner in nude mice with T-cell deficiency, revealing an addiction of these tumors to NFATc1 activation and downplaying a role for T cells in the NFATc1-induced tumorigenic microenvironment. These findings collectively suggest that beyond the cell autonomous effects on the upregulation of oncogenic proteins, NFATc1 activation has non-cell autonomous effects through the establishment of a promitogenic microenvironment for tumor growth. This study provides direct evidence for the ability of NFATc1 in inducing primary tumor formation in vivo and supports targeting NFAT signaling in anti-tumor therapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 29 April 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.132. HubMed – addiction


High-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression and trafficking abnormalities in psychiatric illness.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Apr 28;
Lewis AS, Picciotto MR

RATIONALE: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a critical component of the cholinergic system of neurotransmission in the brain that modulates important physiological processes such as reward, cognition, and mood. Abnormalities in this system are accordingly implicated in multiple psychiatric illnesses, including addiction, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. There is significantly increased tobacco use, and therefore nicotine intake, in patient populations, and pharmacological agents that act on various nicotinic receptor subtypes ameliorate clinical features of these disorders. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cholinergic dysfunction in psychiatric disease will permit more targeted design of novel therapeutic agents. RESULTS: The objective of this review is to describe the multiple cellular pathways through which chronic nicotine exposure regulates nAChR expression, and to juxtapose these mechanisms with evidence for altered expression of high-affinity nAChRs in human psychiatric illness. Here, we summarize multiple studies from pre-clinical animal models to human in vivo imaging and post-mortem experiments demonstrating changes in nAChR regulation and expression in psychiatric illness. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a mechanistic explanation of nAChR abnormalities in psychiatric illness will arise from a fuller understanding of normal nAChR trafficking, along with the detailed study of human tissue, perhaps using novel biotechnological advances, such as induced pluripotent stem cells. HubMed – addiction



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