Evaluation of a New Nonnvasive Device in Determining Hemoglobin Levels in Emergency Department Patients.

Evaluation of a New Nonnvasive Device in Determining Hemoglobin Levels in Emergency Department Patients.

West J Emerg Med. 2013 May; 14(3): 283-286
Knutson T, Della-Giustina D, Tomich E, Wills B, Luerssen E, Reynolds P

Introduction: The Masimo Radical-7 Pulse CO-Oximeter is a medical device recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that performs noninvasive oximetry and estimated venous or arterial hemoglobin measurements. A portable, noninvasive device that rapidly measures hemoglobin concentration could be useful in both austere and modern hospital settings. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of variation between the device’s estimated hemoglobin measurement and the actual venous hemoglobin concentration in undifferentiated emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study of adult patients presenting to the ED. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample of adult ED patients who required a complete blood count as part of their care in the ED. A simultaneous probe hemoglobin was obtained and recorded. Results: Bias between probe and laboratory hemoglobin measurements was -0.5 (95% confidence interval, – 0.8 to -0.1) but this was not statistically significant from 0 (t 0.05,124 = 0.20, P > 0.5). The limits of agreement were -4.7 and 3.8, beyond the clinically relevant standard of equivalency of ± 1 g/dL. Conclusion: These data suggest that noninvasive hemoglobin determination is not sufficiently accurate for emergency department use. HubMed – drug


Evaluation of California’s Alcohol and Drug Screening and Brief Intervention Project for Emergency Department Patients.

West J Emerg Med. 2013 May; 14(3): 263-270
Woodruff SI, Eisenberg K, McCabe CT, Clapp JD, Hohman M

Introduction: Visits to settings such as emergency departments (EDs) may present a “teachable moment” in that a patient may be more open to feedback and suggestions regarding their risky alcohol and illicit drug-use behaviors. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is an ‘opportunistic’ public health approach that targets low-risk users, in addition to those already dependent on alcohol and/or drugs. SBIRT programs provide patients with comprehensive screening and assessments, and deliver interventions of appropriate intensity to reduce risks related to alcohol and drug use. Methods: This study used a single group pre-post test design to assess the effect of the California SBIRT service program (i.e., CASBIRT) on 6 substance-use outcomes (past-month prevalence and number of days of binge drinking, illegal drug use, and marijuana use). Trained bilingual/bicultural Health Educators attempted to screen all adult patients in 12 EDs/trauma centers (regardless of the reason for the patient’s visit) using a short instrument, and then delivered a brief motivational intervention matched to the patient’s risk level. A total of 2,436 randomly selected patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or drug use consented to be in a 6-month telephone follow-up interview. Because of the high loss to follow-up rate, we used an intention-to-treat approach for the data analysis. Results: Results of generalized linear mixed models showed modest reductions in all 6 drug-and alcohol-use outcomes. Men (versus women), those at relatively higher risk status (versus lower risk), and those with only one substance of misuse (versus both alcohol and illicit drug misuse) tended to show more positive change. Conclusion: These results suggest that SBIRT services provided in acute care settings are associated with modest changes in self-reported recent alcohol and illicit drug use. HubMed – drug


Prescription History of Emergency Department Patients Prescribed Opioids.

West J Emerg Med. 2013 May; 14(3): 247-252
Hoppe JA, Houghland J, Yaron M, Heard K

Introduction: To use Colorado’s prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) to describe the recent opioid prescription history of patients discharged from our emergency department (ED) with a prescription for opioid pain medications. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 300 adult ED patients who received an opioid prescription. We abstracted prescription histories for the six months prior to the ED visit from the PDMP, and abstracted clinical and demographic variables from the chart. Results: There were 5,379 ED visits during the study month, 3,732 of which were discharged. Providers wrote 1,165 prescriptions for opioid analgesics to 1,124/3,732 (30%) of the patients. Median age was 36 years. Thirty-nine percent were male. Patients were 46% Caucasian, 26% African American, 22% Hispanic, 2% Asian and 4% other. These were similar to our overall ED population. There was substantial variability in the number of prescriptions, prescribers and total number of pills. A majority (205/296) of patients had zero or one prescription. The 90th percentile for number of prescriptions was seven, while the 10th percentile was zero. Patients in the highest decile tended to be older, with a higher proportion of Caucasians and females. Patients in the lowest decile resembled the general ED population. The most common diagnoses associated with opioid prescriptions were abdominal pain (11.5%), cold/flu symptoms (9.5%), back pain (5.4%), flank pain (5.0%) and motor vehicle crash (4.7%). Conclusion: Substantial variability exists in the opioid prescription histories of ED patients, but a majority received zero or one prescription in the preceding six months. The top decile of patients averaged more than two prescriptions per month over the six months prior to ED visit, written by more than 6 different prescribers. There was a trend toward these patients being older, Caucasian and female. HubMed – drug


Oral and Intravenous Acetylcysteine for Treatment of Acetaminophen Toxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

West J Emerg Med. 2013 May; 14(3): 218-226
Green JL, Heard KJ, Reynolds KM, Albert D

Introduction: There are few reports summarizing the effectiveness of oral and intravenous (IV) acetylcysteine. We determined the proportion of acetaminophen poisoned patients who develop hepatotoxicity (serum transaminase > 1000 IU/L) when treated with oral and IV acetylcysteine. Methods: Studies were double abstracted by trained researchers. We determined the proportions of patients who developed hepatotoxicity for each route using a random effects model. Studies were further stratified by early and late treatment. Results: We screened 4,416 abstracts; 16 articles, including 5,164 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The overall rate of hepatotoxicity for the oral and IV routes were 12.6% and 13.2%, respectively. Treatment delays are associated with a higher rate of hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: Studies report similar rates of hepatotoxicity for oral and IV acetylcysteine, but direct comparisons are lacking. While it is difficult to disentangle the effects of dose and duration from route, our findings suggest that the rates of hepatotoxicity are similar for oral and IV administration. HubMed – drug