Evaluating the Autonomic Nervous System in Patients With Laryngopharyngeal Reflux.

Evaluating the Autonomic Nervous System in Patients with Laryngopharyngeal Reflux.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Mar 21;
Huang WJ, Shu CH, Chou KT, Wang YF, Hsu YB, Ho CY, Lan MY

ObjectivesThe pathogenesis of laryngopharyngeal re?ux (LPR) remains unclear. It is linked to but distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has been shown to be related to disturbed autonomic regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether autonomic dysfunction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of LPR.Study DesignCase-control study.SettingTertiary care center.Subjects and MethodsSeventeen patients with LPR and 19 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 50 years, were enrolled in the study. The patients were diagnosed with LPR if they had a reflux symptom index (RSI) ?13 and a reflux finding score (RFS) ?7. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was used to assess autonomic function. Anxiety and depression levels measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were also conducted.ResultsIn HRV analysis, high frequency (HF) represents the parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system, whereas low frequency (LF) represents the total autonomic activity. There were no significant differences in the LF power and HF power between the 2 groups. However, significantly lower HF% (P = .003) and a higher LF/HF ratio (P = .012) were found in patients with LPR, who demonstrated poor autonomic modulation and higher sympathetic activity. Anxiety was also frequently observed in the patient group.ConclusionThe study suggests that autonomic dysfunction seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPR. The potential beneficial effect of autonomic nervous system modulation as a therapeutic modality for LPR merits further investigation. HubMed – depression


Risk factors for hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease: Results from a large prospective cohort study.

Mov Disord. 2013 Mar 20;
Zhu K, van Hilten JJ, Putter H, Marinus J

The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of hallucinations in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). A broad range of motor and nonmotor features was assessed at baseline and during the following 5 years in 386 PD patients. Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data and longitudinal analyses of follow-up data were performed to identify risk factors for hallucinations in PD. Twenty-one percent of the patients had hallucinations at baseline, whereas 46% of the patients without hallucinations at baseline developed this feature during follow-up. Univariate survival analysis showed that older age, female sex, less education, higher age at onset, and more severe motor and cognitive impairment, depression, daytimes sleepiness, autonomic dysfunction, and motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, as well as higher daily levodopa dose, were associated with the risk of developing hallucinations. This largely corresponds with the features that were associated with the presence of hallucinations at baseline. In a stepwise regression model, older age at onset, female sex, excessive daytime sleepiness, autonomic dysfunction, and dyskinesias emerged as independent risk factors for developing hallucinations. Female sex, autonomic dysfunction, motor fluctuations, and dyskinesias have not been reported as risk factors in previous studies. These findings lend support to the notion that hallucinations in PD are caused by a combination of risk factors that are associated with (the interaction between) older age and more advanced disease. The identification of female sex as a risk factor for developing of hallucinations in PD is a new finding and should be verified in future studies. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. HubMed – depression


Sexuality After Breast Reconstruction Post Mastectomy.

Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2013 Mar 22;
Neto MS, de Aguiar Menezes MV, Moreira JR, Garcia EB, Abla LE, Ferreira LM

BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is a medical condition that can lead to relationship issues as well as depression and has a somatoform basis. It is estimated to affect 49 % of Brazilian women. Studies have shown that both cancer diagnosis and its surgical treatment (mastectomy) affect women psychologically and can lead to psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare sexuality in women who underwent mastectomy alone with those who underwent breast reconstruction after mastectomy. METHOD: This descriptive transversal study analyzed two groups of patients, one with 17 women after mastectomy alone and another with 19 women who underwent breast reconstruction post mastectomy. The patients ranged in age from 18 to 60 years old. The exclusion criteria were illiteracy; ongoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or psychiatric treatment; or if any surgery had been performed the previous year. All patients were from the Gynecology and Plastic Surgery Department of the Federal University of São Paulo. They voluntarily answered the FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index) questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using Student’s t test and Pearson’s coefficient, and the significance level used was p < 0.05. RESULTS: Data showed a lower FSFI score for the mastectomy-alone group compared to the breast reconstruction group (median = 10.15 ± 2.636 and 22.44 ± 3.055, respectively; p = 0.0057). There was no relationship established between the scores and postoperative time (post, p = 0.9382; pre, p = 0.2142) or between scores and remuneration income (post, p = 0.7699; pre, p = 0.5245), stable relationship (post, p = 0.2613; pre, p = 0.5245), and age (post, p = 0.3951; pre, p = 0.8427) for both groups. Mean age has shown no significant difference (p = 0.4740; median post = 47.71 ± 2.012; medina pre = 46.69 ± 1.809). CONCLUSION: An improvement in sexual function has been observed in patients who underwent breast reconstruction after mastectomy, probably as a result of better self-esteem as well as body image, both of which are affected by a mastectomy. The aesthetic results were evaluated using a questionnaire, and all the patients answered positively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 . HubMed – depression


The impact of prior deployment experience on civilian employment after military service.

Occup Environ Med. 2013 Mar 21;
Horton JL, Jacobson IG, Wong CA, Wells TS, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Ryan MA, Smith TC,

OBJECTIVE: To determine if deployment to recent military operations or other health, demographic, or military-related characteristics were associated with employment after military service. METHODS: Former US active duty military service members participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, a population-based sample of US military personnel that began in July of 2001, were prospectively followed from the time of baseline health reporting to self-reported employment status after military separation. RESULTS: Of the 9099 separated personnel meeting inclusion criteria, 17% reported unemployment after military service. In multivariable modelling, prior deployment experiences, with or without reported combat, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were not significantly associated with employment status postservice. Among those who routinely retired from service with a pension, positive screens for depression (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.63) and panic/anxiety (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.43) were significantly associated with subsequent unemployment. Poor physical health, female sex, black race, lower education and disabling illnesses/injuries were also predictive of postservice unemployment. CONCLUSIONS: After stratifying for reason for military separation, mental disorders like depression or panic/anxiety and poor physical health may have greater impact than prior deployment experiences or PTSD on the ability to find or maintain employment postservice. These findings may guide support for veterans most in need of job placement services after military service. HubMed – depression


Genes of Experience: Explaining the Heritability of Putative Environmental Variables Through Their Association with Behavioural and Emotional Traits.

Behav Genet. 2013 Mar 22;
McAdams TA, Gregory AM, Eley TC

An increasing body of evidence shows that many ‘environmental’ measures are heritable, indicating genetic involvement in environmental exposure (or gene-environment correlation). In the present study we attempt to clarify why three such ‘environmental’ measures (maternal negativity, paternal negativity and negative life events) are consistently found to be heritable. Through multivariate genetic analysis of a sample of adolescent twins from the UK we show that the heritability of these putative environmental measures can be explained via their association with five behavioural phenotypes: oppositionality, delinquency, physical aggression, depression and anxiety. This is consistent with the notion that being genetically susceptible to certain behavioural difficulties could lead to exposure to certain life events, and this may account for the reported heritability of ‘environmental’ measures. Results are discussed in the context of possible active, evocative and passive gene-environment correlations. HubMed – depression