Estimation of Total Phenolic Content, in-Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Flowers of Moringa Oleifera.

Estimation of total phenolic content, in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of Moringa oleifera.

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 Aug; 3(8): 623-7
Alhakmani F, Kumar S, Khan SA, Ahmad A

To evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) grown in Oman.Flowers of M. oleifera were collected in the month of December 2012 and identified by a botanist. Alcoholic extract of the dry pulverized flowers of M. oleifera were obtained by cold maceration method. The ethanolic flower extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening as the reported methods. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content. DPPH was used to determine in-vitro antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers was investigated by protein denaturation method.Phytochemical analysis of extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides etc. M. oleifera flowers were found to contain 19.31 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent of total phenolics in dry extract but exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract was significant and comparable with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.The results of our study suggest that flowers of M. oleifera possess potent anti-inflammatory activity and are also a good source of natural antioxidants. Further study is needed to identify the chemical compounds responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity. HubMed – drug

Administration of four different doses of gabapentin reduces awakening from breakthrough pain and adverse effects in outpatients with neuropathic pain during the initial titration.

Korean J Anesthesiol. 2013 Jul; 65(1): 48-54
Yang JY, Lee WI, Shin WK, Kim CH, Baik SW, Kim KH

Gabapentin is a safe and well-tolerated anticonvulsant with a wide therapeutic index, and it is used for neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to compare previous dosing methods with the administration of four different doses of gabapentin while maintaining the same maximum daily dose for the safe administration of high doses of the medication.THE SUBJECTS WERE OUTPATIENTS WITH VARIOUS NEUROPATHIC PAIN SYNDROMES, WITH AT LEAST TWO OF THE FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS: allodynia, burning pain, shooting pain, or hyperalgesia. The TID group received equal doses of gabapentin 3 times per day, while the QID group received 4 different doses of gabapentin per day. The pain score, frequency of breakthrough pain (BTP), severity and the duration of pain, sleep disturbance due to nocturnal pain, and adverse effects were recorded each day.The average daily pain score and sleep disturbance were significantly reduced in the QID group between days 3 and 10 of the experiment. The adverse effects of the medication were also reduced in the QID group. However, the frequency of BTP and severity and duration of pain were not significantly different between two groups.Administration of 4 different doses of gabapentin during the initial titration in outpatients with neuropathic pain resulted in a significant reduction in awakening from breakthrough pain and a reduction in the adverse effects of the medication. HubMed – drug

Magnesium: a versatile drug for anesthesiologists.

Korean J Anesthesiol. 2013 Jul; 65(1): 4-8

Magnesium sulfate has been used in preeclampsia patients in order to prevent seizure. It is also used for the treatment of arrhythmia and asthma and as an anesthetic adjunct in patients undergoing surgery for pheochromocytoma. However, its potentiating effects on perioperative analgesia and muscle relaxation have drawn attention recently. These characteristics of magnesium (anesthetic- and analgesic-sparing effect) enable anesthesiologists to reduce the use of anesthetics during surgery and the use of analgesics after surgery. Magnesium sulfate has a high therapeutic index and cost-effectiveness. Considering these diverse characteristics useful for anesthesia, appropriate use of magnesium sulfate would improve surgical outcome and patients’ satisfaction. HubMed – drug

Genetic Polymorphism of Cytochrome p450 (2C19) Enzyme in Iranian Turkman Ethnic Group.

Oman Med J. 2013 Jul; 28(4): 237-44
Tabari RG, Marjani A, Ataby OA, Mansourian AR, Samai NM

Different findings indicate that CYP2C plays a clinical role in determining interindividual and interethnic differences in drug effectiveness. The ethnic differences in the frequency of CYP2C19 mutant alleles continue to be a significant study topic. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of allelic variants of CYP2C19 in Turkman ethnic groups and compare them with the frequencies in other ethnic populations.The study group included 140 unrelated healthy ethnic Turkman subject referred to the Health Center. Genotyping of CYP2C19 alleles (CYP2C19*1, CYP2C19*2, and CYP2C19*3 alleles) was carried out by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique.The allele frequency of CYP2C19*1, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 were 56.43%, 23.57% and 20%, respectively. The result also showed that 39.7% of subjects expressed the CYP2C19*1/*1 genotype. While 42.1%, 9.3%, 9.3% and 1.4% expressed CYP2C19*1/*2, CYP2C19*1/*3, CYP2C19*2/*2 and CYP2C19*3/*3 genotypes, respectively. The genotype CYP2C19*2/*3 was not expressed in this study population. The findings suggested that 10% of subjects were poor metabolizers by expressing CYP2C19*2/*2 and CYP2C19*3/*3 genotypes. Fifty one percent of subjects were intermediate metabolizers having CYP2C19*1/*2, CYP2C19*2/*3 and CYP2C19*1/*3 genotypes and 37.86% were found to be extensive metabolizers expressing CYP2C19*1/*1 genotype. The frequency of intermediate metabolizers genotype was high (51%) in Turkman ethnic groups.This study showed that the determined allelic variants of CYP2C19 (CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 mutations) in Turkman ethnic group are comparable to other populations. These findings could be useful for the clinicians in different country to determine optimal dosage and effectiveness of drugs metabolized by this polymorphic enzyme. HubMed – drug