(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Ovariectomized Rats.

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats.

Menopause. 2013 Mar 18;
Chen CH, Kang L, Lin RW, Fu YC, Lin YS, Chang JK, Chen HT, Chen CH, Lin SY, Wang GJ, Ho ML

OBJECTIVE: Previously, we reported that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, increased the osteogenic differentiation of murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by increasing the messenger RNA expression of osteogenesis-related genes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and, eventually, mineralization. The present study further investigated the effects of EGCG on bone microstructure change and possible mechanisms in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteopenic rats. METHODS: Rats subjected to OVX were administered EGCG systemically for 12 weeks. Proximal tibial bone mineral densities before and after treatment were compared between groups. Changes in the microarchitecture of both the proximal tibia and the third lumbar spine were compared between EGCG-treated and nontreated groups using micro-CT (?CT). Bone histology and immunohistochemistry in the proximal tibia were evaluated. RESULTS: Results showed that EGCG 3.4 mg/kg/day (estimated peak serum concentration, 10 ?mol/L) hampered the decrease in bone mineral density (from 7.97% to 3.96%) and improved the parameters of ?CT measurements, including bone volume (from 18% to 27%), trabecular thickness (from 0.17 to 0.22 mm), trabecular number (from 1.13 to 1.37 mm), and trabecular separation (from 0.91 to 0.69 mm), compared with nontreated ovariectomized rats. Similar improvements in bone volume (from 30% to 49%) and trabecular thickness (from 0.14 to 0.26 mm) were also found in the third lumbar spine. Bone volume in the tibial cortex also increased after EGCG treatment (from 9% to 28%). A higher trabecular number and greater trabecular volume were also seen in histology, further confirming the results of ?CT. The immunolocalized bone morphogenetic protein 2 brown-stained area increased from 31% in the OVX group to 53% in the OVX + 10 EGCG group (P < 0.01). Serial biochemistry data revealed no significant systemic toxic effect of EGCG. CONCLUSIONS: Intraperitoneal treatment with EGCG 3.4 mg/kg/day for 3 months can mitigate bone loss and improve bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats, and increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 may contribute to this effect. HubMed – rehab


Sports injury prevention in your pocket?! Prevention apps assessed against the available scientific evidence: a review.

Br J Sports Med. 2013 Mar 19;
van Mechelen DM, van Mechelen W, Verhagen EA

BACKGROUND: High costs and personal burden follow sports and physical activity-related injuries (SPRI). The last decades’ knowledge on how to prevent SPRIs has grown. Past years’ eHealth is emerging and mobile applications (apps) helping to prevent SPRIs are appearing. AIM: To review the content of iPhone and iPad apps containing a claim to prevent sports and physical activity-related injuries and to appraise this claim against best available scientific evidence. METHODS: The US iTunes App Store was searched using the keywords ‘injury’, ‘prevention’ and ‘rehabilitation’. Apps within the categories ‘health & fitness’, ‘sports’ and ‘medical’ containing a preventive claim in the app name, description or screenshots were included. Claims were extracted and a search for best available evidence was performed. RESULTS: Eighteen apps met our inclusion criteria. Four of these apps contained claims for which evidence was available: three apps covered ankle sprains and provided information on taping or neuromuscular training. Of these three apps, one app also provided information on prevention of dental injury with mouth guards. One app provided a routine to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injury. The main focus of the five apps was running injury prevention; for their content evidence of absence of efficacy was found. For nine apps no evidence supporting their content was found. CONCLUSIONS: f 18 apps included, only four contained claims that could be supported by available literature and five apps contained false claims. This lack of scientifically sound apps provides an opportunity for caretakers to develop apps with evidence-based claims to prevent SPRIs. HubMed – rehab


The Effects of Pressure on Arthritic Knees in a Rat Model of CFA-Induced Arthritis.

Pain Physician. 2013 Mar; 16(2): E95-E102
Koo ST, Lee CH, Choi H, Shin YI, Ha KT, Ye H, Shim HB

Pain is influenced by weather changes under certain circumstances, and inflammatory pain in animal models is ameliorated by pressure, but the underlying mechanism of atmospheric pressure has not been clearly elucidated.To examine the effect of pressure on pain in an arthritic animal model.Controlled animal study.Laboratory animal study.Following an injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into one side of a knee joint, 32 rats were assigned randomly to 2 groups and either placed under 1 or 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) in a hyperbaric chamber for 5 hours. The pain levels were assessed daily for up to 2 weeks post-injection to determine the changes in weight bearing (WB) of the affected limbs. In addition, the levels of gelatinase, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression in the synovial fluids of the knees were analyzed.After arthritis induction, the rats in the 1 ATA group showed reduced WB of the affected limbs (< 10% of normal limbs). This reduction in WB peaked at 2 days after the injection and then decreased spontaneously. Nevertheless, the pain behavior lasted for more than 2 weeks. In the 2.5 ATA group, the WB was significantly better during the experiment.  The MMP-9/MMP-2 ratio increased at 7 and 14 days after the CFA injection in the 1 ATA group. However, repetitive exposure to 2.5 ATA significantly reduced this ratio in the 2.5 ATA group.Although a sufficient number of samples were used to support the hypothesis that high atmospheric pressure improves a painful condition in this study, an additional larger-scale study will be needed to confirm these findings.Exposure to elevated pressures appears to relieve arthritic pain for extended periods by reducing the inflammatory process and should be considered as a possible alternative pain-reducing therapy. HubMed – rehab