Epidemiology of Drug Use Among Biracial/ethnic Youth and Young Adults: Results From a U.S. Population-Based Survey.

Epidemiology of drug use among biracial/ethnic youth and young adults: results from a U.S. population-based survey.

J Psychoactive Drugs. 2013 Apr-Jun; 45(2): 99-111
Clark TT, Nguyen AB, Kropko J

This study estimates the prevalence of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in a nationally representative sample of monoracial/ethnic and biracial/ethnic youth and young adults. The authors consider 16 racial/ethnic categories and used four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The analysis sample consists of 20,745 individuals in Wave 1. The primary statistical methodology used in the present study is logistic regression with sample weights. Findings suggest that participants who self-report two races/ethnicities have prevalence rates that are intermediate to those of the two corresponding monoracial/ethnic rates. For example, Black-American Indians reported cigarette smoking rates that were significantly lower than rates reported by American Indians but significantly higher than rates reported by Blacks. Groups with the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking at Wave 1 were American Indian, White-American Indian, White, and Multiracial (people reporting three or more races/ethnicities). Groups with the highest prevalence of alcohol drinking at Wave 1 were White-American Indian, Multiracial, Hispanic, White, and White-Hispanic. Groups with the highest prevalence of marijuana smoking at Wave 1 were Black-Asian and American Indian. The authors found an interaction effect between race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Lower-class SES status may serve as a risk factor for biracial/ethnic adolescents while upper-class SES may serve as a protective factor for these youth. In general, biracial/ethnic individuals have prevalence rates that are intermediate to those of the two corresponding monoracial/ethnic rates. HubMed – drug

Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis cases by risk groups, Japan, 2007-2010.

Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2013 Jan; 4(1): 11-8
Uchimura K, Ngamvithayapong-Yanai J, Kawatsu L, Ohkado A, Yoshiyama T, Shimouchi A, Ito K, Ishikawa N

WE STUDIED THE CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATMENT OUTCOMES OF THE FOLLOWING RISK GROUPS FOR TUBERCULOSIS (TB): those with HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM), contact cases, the homeless, foreigners, health care workers (HCW) and the elderly.A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by analysing the Japanese tuberculosis surveillance data of all cases registered between 2007 and 2010 (n = 96 689).The annual proportion of TB cases by risk group was stable over the study period, although there was a slight but significant increase observed for foreigners and elderly cases. Homeless and elderly TB cases had the highest DM co-morbidity (16.6% and 15.3%). HIV co-infection was low in all TB cases (0.2%) yet highest in foreigners (1.3%). HIV status of 45% of TB cases was unknown. The proportion of multi drug resistant (MDR) TB was similar among all risk groups (0.0-0.9%) except foreigners, at 3.4%. Males in most risk groups had higher mortality than females; the mortality of all TB cases in all age groups for both males and females were 3.6-24 times higher than the general population.Reasons for the high proportion of “HIV status unknown” should be investigated and improved. Contact tracing among foreign cases with MDR-TB should be a priority. Homeless persons should be screened for DM together with TB. Programs to enhance health and nutrition status may benefit tuberculosis prevention among the elderly. Tuberculosis screening and TB education are important for HCW. HubMed – drug

High technology in medicine: lessons from cardiovascular innovations and future perspective.

Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2013 Apr; 4(2): e0009
Beyar R

Four decades of innovations in the field of interventional cardiology are presented as an example for the great growth of high technology in medicine, side by side with the development of general technology and science. The field of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was enabled by the development of X-ray systems, allowing us to view the pathology, and was critically dependent on courageous and imaginative physicians and scientists who developed percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), stents, and transarterial aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Today, outstanding research continues to progress, with stem cell research and IPC technologies presenting new challenges and yet taller mountains to climb. The rapid development we have witnessed was due to tight collaborations between clinical and academic institutions and industry. The combination of all these elements, with a proper mechanism to handle conflict of interest, is an essential linkage for any progress in this field. We will continue to see exponential growth of innovations and must be prepared with appropriate bodies to encourage such developments and to provide early-stage funding and support for novel ideas. HubMed – drug

Pharmacogenomic testing and antithrombotic therapy: ready for prime time?

Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2013 Jan; 4(1): e0005
Holmes DR

Pharmacogenomics is the study of an individual’s interaction with a specific drug based upon the genetic make-up of the individual. Pharmacogenomic testing can be a powerful tool in testing a drug’s potential efficacy and toxicity on an individual patient. For this tool to be used correctly, certain criteria have to be met. First and foremost is the strength of association between the genetic variation and the drug’s interaction. The predictiveness of pharmacogenomics for the individual patient must be factored in as well. If these criteria are not met, requiring pharmacogenomic testing is at best a waste of money and in some cases can endanger the patient’s life. Stent thrombosis is a serious and many times fatal outcome in a small minority of patients who have received drug-eluting stents. Here, we discuss a case in which the FDA issued a “boxed warning” about the use of the anti-clotting medication, clopidogrel, used to prevent stent thrombosis, the pharmacogenomic data available at the time the warning was issued, and the medical community’s response to the FDA’s warning. This article also discusses developments in the field of anti-clotting therapy since the FDA’s warning. HubMed – drug