Enhanced Bactericidal Potency of Nanoliposomes by Modification of the Fusion Activity Between Liposomes and Bacterium.

Enhanced bactericidal potency of nanoliposomes by modification of the fusion activity between liposomes and bacterium.

Int J Nanomedicine. 2013; 8: 2351-2360
Ma Y, Wang Z, Zhao W, Lu T, Wang R, Mei Q, Chen T

Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a good model of antibiotic resistance. These organisms have an outer membrane with a low level of permeability to drugs that is often combined with multidrug efflux pumps, enzymatic inactivation of the drug, or alteration of its molecular target. The acute and growing problem of antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas to conventional antibiotics made it imperative to develop new liposome formulations to overcome these mechanisms, and investigate the fusion between liposome and bacterium.The rigidity, stability and charge properties of phospholipid vesicles were modified by varying the cholesterol, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and negatively charged lipids 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol sodium salt (DMPG), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phopho-L-serine sodium salt (DMPS), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate monosodium salt (DMPA), nature phosphatidylserine sodium salt from brain and nature phosphatidylinositol sodium salt from soybean concentrations in liposomes. Liposomal fusion with intact bacteria was monitored using a lipid-mixing assay.It was discovered that the fluid liposomes-bacterium fusion is not dependent on liposomal size and lamellarity. A similar degree of fusion was observed for liposomes with a particle size from 100 to 800 nm. The fluidity of liposomes is an essential pre-request for liposomes fusion with bacteria. Fusion was almost completely inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol into fluid liposomes. The increase in the amount of negative charges in fluid liposomes reduces fluid liposomes-bacteria fusion when tested without calcium cations due to electric repulsion, but addition of calcium cations brings the fusion level of fluid liposomes to similar or higher levels. Among the negative phospholipids examined, DMPA gave the highest degree of fusion, DMPS and DMPG had intermediate fusion levels, and PI resulted in the lowest degree of fusion. Furthermore, the fluid liposomal encapsulated tobramycin was prepared, and the bactericidal effect occurred more quickly when bacteria were cultured with liposomal encapsulated tobramycin.The bactericidal potency of fluid liposomes is dramatically enhanced with respect to fusion ability when the fusogenic lipid, DOPE, is included. Regardless of changes in liposome composition, fluid liposomes-bacterium fusion is universally enhanced by calcium ions. The information obtained in this study will increase our understanding of fluid liposomal action mechanisms, and help in optimizing the new generation of fluid liposomal formulations for the treatment of pulmonary bacterial infections. HubMed – drug

Systematic dielectrophoretic analysis of the Ara-C-induced NB4 cell apoptosis combined with gene expression profiling.

Int J Nanomedicine. 2013; 8: 2333-2350
Lv Y, Zeng L, Zhang G, Xu Y, Lu Y, Mitchelson K, Cheng J, Xing W

Dielectrophoresis (DEP) can be used to noninvasively measure the dielectric state of the cell, and this data can be used to monitor cell health or apoptosis. In this study, we followed events associated with cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C)-induced apoptosis in NB4 cells using DEP analysis. Our data showed that the membrane capacitance of NB4 cells decreases from 9.42 to 7.63 mF/m(2) in the first 2 hours following treatment with Ara-C, and that this decreased capacitance persists for >12 hours. Additionally, cytoplasmic conductivity decreases from 0.217 to 0.190 S/m within 2 hours of Ara-C treatment; this level is maintained for a short period of time before decreasing. We also investigated these events molecularly at the level of gene expression using microarray analysis and showed that the expression of genes related to membrane capacitance and cytoplasmic conductivity change dramatically as early as 2 hours post-Ara-C treatment, and further demonstrated a temporal relationship between the dielectric properties and key events in apoptosis. This study, integrating physical electrical properties of the cell membrane and cytoplasm with those of conductivity-related gene networks, provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of apoptosis, establishing a systematic foundation for DEP application in follow-up drug screening and development of medicines for treating leukemia. HubMed – drug

Identification of Penicillin-binding proteins employing support vector machines and random forest.

Bioinformation. 2013; 9(9): 481-484
Nair V, Dutta M, Manian SS, S RK, Jayaraman VK

Penicillin-Binding Proteins are peptidases that play an important role in cell-wall biogenesis in bacteria and thus maintaining bacterial infections. A wide class of ?-lactam drugs are known to act on these proteins and inhibit bacterial infections by disrupting the cell-wall biogenesis pathway. Penicillin-Binding proteins have recently gained importance with the increase in the number of multi-drug resistant bacteria. In this work, we have collected a dataset of over 700 Penicillin-Binding and non-Penicillin Binding Proteins and extracted various sequence-related features. We then created models to classify the proteins into Penicillin-Binding and non-binding using supervised machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machines and Random Forest. We obtain a good classification performance for both the models using both the methods. HubMed – drug

In-silico analysis of caspase-3 and -7 proteases from blood-parasitic Schistosoma species (Trematoda) and their human host.

Bioinformation. 2013; 9(9): 456-463
Kumar S, Biswal DK, Tandon V

Proteolytic enzymes of the caspase family, which reside as latent precursors in most nucleated metazoan cells, are core effectors of apoptosis. Of them, the executioner caspases- 3 and -7 exist within the cytosol as inactive dimers and are activated by a process called dimerization. Caspase inhibition is looked upon as a promising approach for treating multiple diseases. Though caspases have been extensively studied in the human system, their role in eukaryotic pathogens and parasites of human hosts has not drawn enough attention. In protein sequence analysis, caspases of blood flukes (Schistosoma spp) were revealed to have a low sequence identity with their counterparts in human and other mammalian hosts, which encouraged us to analyse interacting domains that participate in dimerization of caspases in the parasite and to reveal differences, if any, between the host-parasite systems. Significant differences in the molecular surface arrangement of the dimer interfaces reveal that in schistosomal caspases only eight out of forty dimer conformations are similar to human caspase structures. Thus, the parasite-specific dimer conformations (that are different from caspases of the host) may emerge as potential drug targets of therapeutic value against schistosomal infections. Three important factors namely, the size of amino acids, secondary structures and geometrical arrangement of interacting domains influence the pattern of caspase dimer formation, which, in turn, is manifested in varied structural conformations of caspases in the parasite and its human hosts. HubMed – drug

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