Emotional and Non-Emotional Pathways to Impulsive Behavior and Addiction.

Emotional and non-emotional pathways to impulsive behavior and addiction.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2013; 7: 43
Torres A, Catena A, Megías A, Maldonado A, Cándido A, Verdejo-García A, Perales JC

Impulsivity is tightly linked to addiction. However, there are several pathways by means of which impulsive individuals are more prone to become addicts, or to suffer an addiction more intensely and for a longer period. One of those pathways involves an inadequate appraisal or regulation of positive and negative emotions, leading to lack of control over hazardous behaviors, and inappropriate decisions. In the present work, we assessed cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI; n = 20), pathological gamblers (PG; n = 21), and healthy controls (HC; n = 23) in trait impulsivity measures (UPPS-P model’s dimensions), and decision-making tasks (Go/No-go; delay-discounting task). During the Go/No-go task, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded, and Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials (ERP) were extracted. Theory-driven ERP analyses focused on the No-go > Go difference in the N2 ERP. Our results show that negative urgency is one of the several psychological features that distinguish addicts from HC. Nevertheless, among the dimensions of trait impulsivity, negative urgency is unique at independently covarying with gambling over-pathologization in the PG sample. Cocaine-dependent individuals performed more poorly than gamblers in the Go/No-go task, and showed abnormal Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials. The difference between the No-go stimulus-evoked N2, and the Go one was attenuated by severity and intensity of chronic cocaine use. Emotional dimensions of impulsivity, however, did not influence Go/No-go performance. HubMed – addiction


The Impact of A “Brief ECT Orientation Module” on The Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical Students Towards ECT in India.

Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2012 Jul; 2(2): 140-5
Balhara Y, Yadav T, Mathur S, Kataria D

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) continues to be an intervention that attracts controversy in spite of its proven efficacy. There is limited literature on attitude and knowledge of medical students towards ECT from Asian and African countries.The current study assesses the impact of a “Brief ECT Orientation Module” on the knowledge of and attitudes of Indian medical students towards modified ECT.The study was conducted at a tertiary care multi-specialty hospital associated with a government medical college. The students were administered the study questionnaire on Day 1 of Psychiatry clerkship. Following this, they were administered the Brief ECT Orientation Module. Assessment was made using a questionnaire with items related to knowledge and attitude towards ECT before and after “Brief ECT Orientation Module.”Fifty-nine students completed the study. There was a significant improvement in knowledge of medical students on all the three domains of the questionnaire for assessment of knowledge about ECT-related facts. A change in attitudes towards ECT was also observed following Brief ECT Orientation Module, especially among those who witnessed ECT administration.The findings of the current study suggest that the Brief ECT Orientation Module is effective in improving the knowledge and attitude of medical students towards ECT. HubMed – addiction


Tramadol dependence: a case series from India.

Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul; 34(3): 283-5
Sarkar S, Nebhinani N, Singh SM, Mattoo SK, Basu D

Tramadol is an atypical, centrally acting, synthetic analgesic, acting through opioid and non-opioid systems. We present a series of seven cases, all men, who sought treatment at our centre for tramadol-dependence. The majority were using other opioids at some point in their lives. Their tramadol use had begun with a prescription of tramadol for opioid detoxification, for headache and body pains, and as an alternative to injectable opioids. The doses of tramadol used varied from 50 to 1500 mg per day. All subjects reported an experience of euphoria with tramadol use. Four patients were put on naltrexone, but had poor compliance. This case series underscores the need for caution, while using tramadol in substance-dependent patients. HubMed – addiction


Reasons for Substance Use: A Comparative Study of Alcohol Use in Tribals and Non-tribals.

Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul; 34(3): 242-6
Sreeraj VS, Prasad S, Khess CR, Uvais NA

BACKGROUND: Consumption of alcohol has been attributed to different reasons by consumers. Attitude and knowledge about the substance and addiction can be influenced by the cultural background of the individual. The tribal population, where alcohol intake is culturally accepted, can have different beliefs and attributes causing one to take alcohol. This study attempts to examine the reasons for alcohol intake and the belief about addiction and their effect on the severity of addiction in people with a different ethnic background. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at a Psychiatric institute with a cross-sectional design. The study population included patients hailing from the Jharkhand state, twenty each, belonging to tribal and non-tribal communities. Patients fulfilling the ICD 10 diagnostic criteria of mental and behavioral disorders due to the alcohol dependence syndrome, with active dependence, were taken, excluding those having any comorbidity or complications. The subjects were assessed with specially designed Sociodemographic-Clinical Performa, modified version of Reasons for Substance Use scale, Addiction Belief scale, and the Alcohol Dependence scale. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND RESULTS: A significantly high number of tribals cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol. Addiction was severe in those consuming alcohol to cope with distressing emotions. Belief in the free-will model was noted to be stronger across the cultures, without any correlation with the reason for intake. This cross-sectional study design, which was based on patients, cannot be easily generalized to the community. CONLUSION: Societal acceptance and pressure as well as high emotional problems appears to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalce of substance depedence in tribals. Primary prevention should be planned to fit the needs of the ethnics. HubMed – addiction


Cell Phones: The Psychosocial Risks.

Innov Clin Neurosci. 2013 Jan; 10(1): 33-37
Sansone RA, Sansone LA

Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user’s risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards. HubMed – addiction