Emotion-Focused Family Therapy for Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents.

Emotion-Focused Family Therapy for Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents.

Clin Psychol Psychother. 2013 Aug 4;
Robinson AL, Dolhanty J, Greenberg L

Family-based therapy (FBT) is regarded as best practice for the treatment of eating disorders in children and adolescents. In FBT, parents play a vital role in bringing their child or adolescent to health; however, a significant minority of families do not respond to this treatment. This paper introduces a new model whereby FBT is enhanced by integrating emotion-focused therapy (EFT) principles and techniques with the aims of helping parents to support their child’s refeeding and interruption of symptoms. Parents are also supported to become their child’s ’emotion coach’; and to process any emotional ‘blocks’ that may interfere with their ability to take charge of recovery. A parent testimonial is presented to illustrate the integration of the theory and techniques of EFT in the FBT model. EFFT (Emotion-Focused Family Therapy) is a promising model of therapy for those families who require a more intense treatment to bring about recovery of an eating disorder.More intense therapeutic models exist for treatment-resistant eating disorders in children and adolescents Emotion is a powerful healing tool in families struggling with an eating disorder Working with parent’s emotions and emotional reactions to their child’s struggles has the potential to improve child outcomes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. HubMed – eating disorders

Prognostic value of rapid response to enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy in a routine clinic sample of eating disorder outpatients.

Int J Eat Disord. 2013 Aug 5;
Raykos BC, Watson HJ, Fursland A, Byrne SM, Nathan P

This study examined whether rapid response to enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) was associated with superior treatment outcomes in a transdiagnostic sample of patients with an eating disorder.Participants were 105 patients with a primary eating disorder diagnosis who received individual CBT-E at a community-based outpatient clinic. Patients completed measures of eating disorder and related pathology at baseline and post-treatment. The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) was administered at baseline and again, on average, 4.6 weeks after commencing treatment to assess rapid response to CBT-E. Patients achieving reliable change on the EDE-Q at this point were classified as rapid responders.No baseline differences distinguished rapid and nonrapid responders. Rapid responders had significantly lower scores on EDE-Q global at post-treatment, were more likely to achieve full remission, and required significantly fewer treatment sessions than nonrapid responders. One-quarter of the nonrapid responders went on to achieve full remission. There were no group differences on measures of anxiety and depression symptoms at the end of treatment.Early change in treatment is encouraged to achieve the best possible prognosis in CBT-E. Those who did not achieve rapid response still had an overall significant improvement in symptoms from pretreatment to post-treatment, but a lower rate of full remission. Nonrapid responders are an important group of patients to study because they offer researchers an opportunity to improve clinical decision-making and treatment outcomes for patients who are at risk of suboptimal response. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2013). HubMed – eating disorders

[Difficulties in adressing purging behaviour in the treatment of a patient with Anorexia nervosa – case 7/2013].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2013 Aug; 138(33): 1670
Keifenheim KE, Giel KE, Leehr EJ, Becker S, Mörike K, Zipfel S, Teufel M

History and clinical findings: We report on a 24-year-old patient with secondary amenorrhoea, underweight (BMI 15,0 kg/m²), and a fear of weight gain, who used laxatives, diuretics, excessive sport and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for weight regulation. Examinations: On physical examination, cachexia, bradycardia, lanugo hair on face and back, and cyanosis of hands and feet were observed. In the laboratory findings, leukopenia, recurrent low potassium and an elevated mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were remarkable. Diagnosis, treatment and course: We diagnosed anorexia nervosa, binge/purging type (AN-BP). We treated the patient for seven weeks in a multimodal setting specific for patients with eating disorders. She gained 3.9 kg (11% of her initial weight). Special challenges included the complications of her laxative abuse as well as her distinct body image disturbance. With knowledge of her background, we understood this misuse of hCG. Conclusion: Purging behaviour should be questioned in detail in patients with eating disorders, because purging methods are not always reported right away and are accompanied with great shame. However, purging behaviour can be very dangerous to one’s health. Using a hCG diet (Hollywood diet) is a rare purging method in patients with anorexia nervosa. HubMed – eating disorders

When do we eat? Ingestive Behavior, Survival, and Reproductive Success.

Horm Behav. 2013 Jul 30;
Schneider JE, Wise JD, Benton NA, Brozek JM, Keen-Rhinehart E

The neuroendocrinology of ingestive behavior is a topic central to human health, particularly in light of the prevalence of obesity, eating disorders, and diabetes. The study of food intake in laboratory rats and mice has yielded some useful hypotheses, but there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Ingestive behavior is more complex than the consummatory act of eating, and decisions about when and how much to eat usually take place in the context of potential mating partners, competitors, predators, and environmental fluctuations that are not present in the laboratory. We emphasize appetitive ingestive behaviors, i.e., actions that bring animals in contact with a goal object, precede consummatory behaviors, and provide a window into motivation. Appetitive ingestive behaviors are under the control of neural circuits and neuropeptide systems that control appetitive sex behaviors and differ from those that control consummatory ingestive behaviors. Decreases in the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels enhance the stimulatory effects of peripheral hormones on appetitive ingestive behavior and the inhibitory effects on appetitive sex behavior, putting new twist on the notion of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin “resistance.” The ratio of hormone concentrations to the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels may generate a critical signal that schedules conflicting behaviors, e.g., mate searching vs. foraging, food hoarding vs. courtship, and fat accumulation vs. parental care. In species representing every vertebrate taxa and even in some invertebrates, many putative “satiety” or “hunger” hormones function to schedule ingestive behavior in order to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates. HubMed – eating disorders

Exploring the co-morbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in a nationally representative community-based sample.

Eat Behav. 2013 Aug; 14(3): 390-3
Bleck J, Debate RD

Emerging evidence signifies the co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with clinical and sub-threshold disordered eating behaviors. However, many existing studies have assessed this co-occurrence among inpatient or intensive outpatient populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the co-occurrence of ADHD with clinical eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in a nationally representative sample via a secondary data analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=4,862; 2,243 males; 2,619 females). Results reveal that females have higher rates of co-occurrence of ADHD and diagnosed eating disorders than males (1.05% vs. 0.20%, p<.01). When controlling for age and race, ADHD predicted diagnosed eating disorders in females (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 2.06; 95% CI: 1.09-3.88; p<.05), but did not predict diagnosed eating disorders in males. With regard to disordered eating behaviors, when controlling for age, gender, and race, ADHD significantly predicted disordered eating behaviors (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.21-2.74). When stratifying by type of disordered eating behavior, ADHD predicted binging and/or purging behavior (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.78-4.61), but not restrictive behaviors. Implications of study findings pertain to both secondary/targeted prevention efforts in addition to tertiary prevention via patient-specific treatment plans. HubMed – eating disorders