Emergence of GABAergic-Dependent Regulation of Input-Specific Plasticity in the Adult Rat Prefrontal Cortex During Adolescence.

Emergence of GABAergic-dependent regulation of input-specific plasticity in the adult rat prefrontal cortex during adolescence.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Aug 2;
Caballero A, Thomases DR, Flores-Barrera E, Cass DK, Tseng KY

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) receives multiple cortical and subcortical afferents that regulate higher order cognitive functions, many of which emerge late in adolescence. However, it remains unclear how these afferents influence PFC processing, especially in light of the protracted, late adolescent maturation of prefrontal GABAergic function. Here we investigated the role of PFC GABAergic transmission in regulating plasticity elicited from the ventral hippocampus and basolateral amygdala, and how such modulation undergoes functional changes during adolescence in rats.In vivo local field potential recordings, combined with prefrontal microinfusion of the GABA-A receptor antagonist picrotoxin, were employed to study the impact of ventral hippocampal and basolateral amygdala high-frequency stimulation on PFC plasticity.Ventral hippocampal-induced PFC plasticity begins to appear only by postnatal days (P) 45-55 with a transient suppression of the evoked response. A switch from transient to long-lasting depression (LTD) of the PFC response emerges after P55 and throughout adulthood (P65-120). Recordings conducted in the presence of picrotoxin revealed that PFC GABAergic transmission is critical for the expression of LTD. In contrast, basolateral amygdala stimulation resulted in PFC long-term potentiation, a form of plasticity that is already enabled by P30 and is insensitive to picrotoxin.The development of ventral hippocampal-dependent PFC LTD is contingent upon the recruitment of local prefrontal GABAergic transmission during adolescence whereas plasticity elicited from the basolateral amygdala is not. Thus, different mechanisms contribute to the refinement of prefrontal plasticity during adolescence as inputs from these two regions are critical for shaping PFC functions. HubMed – depression

Algivirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a Novel Agar-Degrading Marine Bacterium of the Family Flammeovirgaceae Isolated from Micronesia.

Curr Microbiol. 2013 Aug 2;
Kim JJ, Kim JH, Kwon YK, Kwon KK, Yang SH, Jang J, Heo SJ, Park HS, Jung WK, Lee Y, Kang DH, Oh C

An aerobic, Gram-negative, coccoid to short rod-shaped and non-flagellated marine bacterial strain S354(T) was isolated from seawater of Micronesia. The strain was capable to degrade agar-forming slight depression into agar plate. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 12-44 °C, a pH range of 5-9, and a salinity range of 1-7 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that S354(T) belongs to the family Flammeovirgaceae. The novel strain was most closely related to Limibacter armeniacum YM 11-185(T) with similarity of 92.5 %. The DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15:0 and C16:1 ?5c. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was determined to be MK-7. Polar lipid profile of S354(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown polar lipid, and unknown glycolipids. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic, biochemical, and physiological tests conducted in this study, S354(T) is proposed to represent a type strain of a novel genus and species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of S354(T) is registered in GenBank under the accession number JQ639084. The type of strain Algivirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov. is S354(T) (=KCCM 90107(T)=JCM 18326(T)). HubMed – depression

Entertainment-Education? A Fotonovela? A New Strategy to Improve Depression Literacy and Help-Seeking Behaviors in At-Risk Immigrant Latinas.

Am J Community Psychol. 2013 Aug 2;
Hernandez MY, Organista KC

Research shows high risk for depression among immigrant Latinas known to increase during the acculturation process. Several barriers such as stigma and low health literacy result in an under-utilization of needed treatment among these women. In response, this study replicated the effectiveness of a Spanish language fotonovela, a form of Entertainment-Education (E-E), designed to increase depression literacy, decrease stigma, and increase help-seeking knowledge and behavior in Latinos. Specifically, this study evaluated a fotonovela delivered in a multifaceted approach to health education used by promotoras. A pretest-posttest randomized control group experimental design with 142 immigrant Latinas at risk for depression was employed. Results indicate significant posttest improvements in depression knowledge, self-efficacy to identify the need for treatment, and decreased stigma in experimental as compared to control group participants. Findings support the application of E-E health literacy tools such as fotonovelas, delivered in multifaceted approaches to health education used by promotoras, to Latinas at risk for mental health concerns. HubMed – depression

Spreading depression and the clinical correlates of migraine.

Rev Neurosci. 2013 Aug 1; 24(4): 353-363
Eikermann-Haerter K, Negro A, Ayata C

Abstract Migraine is the most common neurologic condition. One-third of migraineurs experience transient neurologic symptoms, the so-called aura. There is strong evidence that spreading depression (SD) is the electrophysiologic substrate of migraine aura. SD is an intense pan-depolarization wave that slowly propagates in gray matter by way of contiguity and transiently disrupts neuronal function. When induced subcortically, striatal SD causes hemiparesis, hippocampal SD can trigger seizures and impact cognition, and bilateral thalamic SD can diminish consciousness. Recent data show that transgenic mice expressing familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) type 1 mutations in voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Cav2.1) develop mutation-specific aura-like signs after a cortical SD similar to patients with the respective mutation. These signs are associated with facilitated subcortical SD propagation. As in FHM, mice with the R192Q mutation develop pure hemiplegia associated with cortical SDs propagating into caudoputamen. S218L mice display additional signs such as seizures and coma when SD propagates into hippocampus and thalamus. In hyperexcitable FHM brains, SD may propagate between cortex and subcortical structures via permissive gray matter bridges, or originate de novo in subcortical structures, to explain unusual and severe aura signs and symptoms. Reciprocal spread and reverberating waves can explain protracted attacks. HubMed – depression