Electronic Media Use and Addiction Among Youth in Psychiatric Clinic Versus School Populations.

Electronic media use and addiction among youth in psychiatric clinic versus school populations.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Can J Psychiatry. 2012 Dec; 57(12): 728-35
Baer S, Saran K, Green DA, Hong I

Objective: Electronic media use is highly prevalent among today’s youth, and its overuse in the general population has been consistently associated with the presence of psychiatric symptoms. In contrast, little information exists about electronic media use among youth with psychiatric disorders. Our study aims to compare patterns of television and computer and gaming station use among youth in psychiatric clinic and community-based school populations. Method: Surveys were completed by 210 youth and parents, from school (n = 110) and psychiatric clinic (n = 100) populations. Duration and frequency of television, video gaming, and nongaming computer activities were ascertained, along with addictive features of use. Descriptive and comparative analyses were conducted, with a statistical threshold of P < 0.05. Results: Quantitative and qualitative differences were identified between the patterns of use reported by the 2 groups. The mean reported daily duration of exposure to electronic media use was 6.6 hours (SD 4.1) for the clinic sample and 4.6 hours (SD 2.6) for the school sample (P < 0.01). Self-reported rates of addictive patterns related to computer and gaming station use were similar between the 2 populations. However, the clinically based sample favoured more violent games, with 29% reporting playing mature-rated games, compared with 13% reported by the school-based sample (P = 0.02). Youth with externalizing disorders expended greater time video gaming, compared with youth with internalizing disorders (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Clinically based samples of youth with mental illnesses spend more time engaged in electronic media activities and are more likely to play violent video games, compared with youth in the general population. Further research is needed to determine the long-term implications of these differences. HubMed – addiction


A Randomised Controlled Trial of a Smoking Cessation Intervention Conducted among Prisoners.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Addiction. 2012 Dec 11;
Richmond R, Indig D, Butler T, Wilhelm K, Archer V, Wodak A

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of nortriptyline (NOR) added to a multi-component smoking cessation intervention, which included cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and provision of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing two study groups with blinded follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months. Both groups received a multi-component smoking cessation intervention comprising two half hour individual sessions of CBT and NRT with either active NOR or placebo. SETTING: Prisons in New South Wales (17) and Queensland (1), Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 425 male prisoners met inclusion criteria and were allocated to either treatment (n=206) or control group (n=219). MEASUREMENTS: Primary endpoints at 3, 6 and 12 months were continuous abstinence, point prevalence abstinence and reporting a 50% reduction in smoking. Smoking status was confirmed by expired carbon monoxide, using a cut point of 10?ppm. FINDINGS: Participants’ demographics and baseline tobacco use were similar in treatment and control groups. Based on an intention-to-treat analysis, continuous abstinence between the treatment and control groups was not significantly different at 3 months (23.8% vs. 16.4%), 6 months (17.5% vs. 12.3%) and 12 months (11.7% vs. 11.9%). CONCLUSION: Adding nortriptyline to a smoking cessation treatment package consisting of behavioural support and nicotine replacement therapy does not appear to improve long-term abstinence rates in male prisoners.
HubMed – addiction


Increased reflection impulsivity in patients with ephedrone induced Parkinsonism.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Addiction. 2012 Dec 11;
Djamshidian A, Sanotsky Y, Matviyenko Y, O’Sullivan SS, Sharman S, Selikhova M, Fedoryshyn L, Filts Y, Bearn J, Lees AJ, Averbeck BB

AIMS: To examine a syndrome of chronic manganism that occurs in drug addicts in Eastern Europe who use intravenous methcathinone (ephedrone) contaminated with potassium permanganate. The basal ganglia, especially the globus pallidus and the putamen, are damaged irreversibly in many cases. Routine neuropsychological assessment has revealed no cognitive deficits despite widespread abnormalities on brain imaging studies and severe extrapyramidal motor handicap on clinical examination. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Ephedrone patients and patients with opioid dependence were recruited from Lviv, Ukraine. PARTICIPANTS: We tested 15 patients with ephedrone induced toxicity, 13 opiate dependent patients, who were receiving opioid replacement therapy and 18 matched healthy volunteers. MEASUREMENTS: The ‘beads task’, an information gathering task to assess reflection impulsivity was used and feedback learning, working memory and risk taking were also assessed. FINDINGS: Opiate dependent patients differed from controls on three out of four tasks, whereas ephedrone patients differed from controls on only one task. More specifically both patient groups were more impulsive and made more irrational choices on the beads task than controls (p<0.001). However, ephedrone patients had no deficits in working memory (p>0.1) or risk taking (p>0.1) compared with controls. Opioid dependent patients had significantly worse working memory (p<0.001) and were significantly more risk prone than controls (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Ephedrone patients may have similar deficits in information gathering and decision making to opiate dependent patients, with preservation of working memory and risk taking. This may reflect specific damage to anterior cingulate- basal ganglia loops. HubMed – addiction



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