Efficient Isolation of Carbonyl-Reducing Enzymes Using Affinity Approach With Anticancer Drug Oracin as a Specific Ligand.

Efficient isolation of carbonyl-reducing enzymes using affinity approach with anticancer drug oracin as a specific ligand.

J Sep Sci. 2013 Jan 24;
Skarydová L, Andrýs R, Holubová L, Stambergová H, K?avová J, Wsól V, Bílková Z

Carbonyl-reducing enzymes are important in both metabolism of endogenous substances and biotransformation of xenobiotics. Because sufficient amounts of native enzymes must be obtained to study their roles in metabolism, an efficient purification strategy is very important. Oracin (6-[2-(2-hydroxyethyl)aminoethyl]-5,11-dioxo-5,6-dihydro-11H-indeno[1,2-c] isoquinoline) is a prospective anticancer drug and one of the xenobiotic substrates for carbonyl-reducing enzymes. A new purification strategy based on molecular recognition of carbonyl-reducing enzymes with oracin as a ligand is reported here. The type of covalent bond, ligand molecules orientation, and their distance from the backbone of the solid matrix for good stearic accessibility were taken into account during the designing of the carrier. The carriers based on magnetically active microparticles were tested by recombinant enzymes AKR1C3 and CBR1. The SiMAG-COOH magnetic microparticles with N-alkylated oracin and BAPA as spacer arm provide required parameters: proper selectivity and specificity enabling to isolate the target enzyme in sufficient quantity, purity, and activity. HubMed – drug


An Electrochemically Actuated MEMS Device for Individualized Drug Delivery: an In Vitro Study.

Adv Healthc Mater. 2013 Mar 12;
Song P, Tng DJ, Hu R, Lin G, Meng E, Yong KT

Individualized disease treatment is a promising branch for future medicine. In this work, we introduce an implantable microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based drug delivery device for programmable drug delivery. An in vitro study on cancer cell treatment has been conducted to demonstrate a proof-of-concept that the engineered device is suitable for individualized disease treatment. This is the first study to demonstrate that MEMS drug delivery devices can influence the outcome of cancer drug treatment through the use of individualized disease treatment regimes, where the strategy for drug dosages is tailored according to different individuals. The presented device is electrochemically actuated through a diaphragm membrane and made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for biocompatibility using simple and cost-effective microfabrication techniques. Individualized disease treatment was investigated using the in vitro programmed delivery of a chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin, to pancreatic cancer cell cultures. Cultured cell colonies of two pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1 and MiaPaCa-2) were treated with three programmed schedules and monitored for 7 days. The result shows that the colony growth has been successfully inhibited for both cell lines among all the three treatment schedules. Also, the different observations between the two cell lines under different schedules reveal that MiaPaCa-2 cells are more sensitive to the drug applied. These results demonstrate that further development on the device will provide a promising novel platform for individualized disease treatment in future medicine as well as for automatic in vitro assays in drug development industry. HubMed – drug


T- and L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels: Their Role in Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction.

Neurourol Urodyn. 2013 Mar 12;
Jiang X, Luttrell I, Chitaley K, Yang CC

AIMS: We investigated the mechanisms of diabetic bladder dysfunction (BD) through analysis of the roles of L- and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), with the ultimate goal of identifying potential drug targets for diabetic BD. METHODS: Bladder function of db/db (type 2 diabetes) and wild type (Wt) mice was evaluated by behavioral tests and in vivo cystometry. Contractile responses of bladder strips to carbachol were measured with or without pre-treatment with nifedipine (a L-type VGCC blocker) or mibefradil (a T-type VGCC blocker). Furthermore, the effects of mibefradil and nifedipine on the proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) were studied. RESULTS: db/db mice had significantly increased voiding frequency, bladder weight, bladder compliance and capacity, and heightened contractile response to carbachol, compared to Wt mice. Nifedipine, but not mibefradil, dramatically suppressed bladder tissue contraction in Wt mice. Whereas nifedipine nearly completely inhibited bladder contraction in db/db mice, mibefradil “normalized” the heightened bladder contractility of db/db mice to the level of Wt mice. In culture, mibefradil, but not nifedipine, inhibited the proliferation of human BSMCs. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that while L-type VGCCs play a major role in the contraction of both diabetic and non-diabetic bladders, T-type VGCCs are involved in the contraction of diabetic bladders and mediate BSMC proliferation. This study provides support for further investigations on the effect of blockade of T-type VGCC or combined blockade of both types of VGCCs in the treatment of diabetic BD. Neurourol. Urodynam. 9999:XX-XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. HubMed – drug


An introductory classroom exercise on protein molecular model visualization and detailed analysis of protein-ligand binding.

Biochem Mol Biol Educ. 2013 Mar 12;
Poeylaut-Palena Andrés A, de Los Ángeles Laborde M

A learning module for molecular level analysis of protein structure and ligand/drug interaction through the visualization of X-ray diffraction is presented. Using DeepView as molecular model visualization software, students learn about the general concepts of protein structure. This Biochemistry classroom exercise is designed to be carried out by following the detailed instructions that make software handling straightforward. Students learn about protein structure and gain insight into the molecular level of the interaction of two active compounds with their receptor. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2013. HubMed – drug


Ceramide induces COX-2-dependent induction of apoptosis in human ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cells by mechanisms that partially overlap with actions of resveratrol.

J Cell Biochem. 2013 Mar 13;
Lin HY, Delmas D, Vang O, Hsieh TC, Lin S, Cheng GY, Chiang HL, Chen CE, Tang HY, Crawford DR, Whang-Peng J, Hwang J, Liu LF, Wu JM

Ceramide is a member of the sphingolipid family of bioactive molecules demonstrated to have profound, diverse biological activities. Ceramide is a potential chemotherapeutic agent via the induction of apoptosis. Exposure to ceramide activates extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2- and p38 kinase-dependent apoptosis in human ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cells, concomitant with an increase in the expression of COX-2 and p53 phosphorylation. Blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity by siRNA or NS398 correspondingly inhibited ceramide-induced p53 Ser-15 phosphorylation and apoptosis; thus COX-2 appears at the apex of the p38 kinase-mediated signaling cascade induced by ceramide. Induction of apoptosis by ceramide or resveratrol was inhibited by the endocytosis inhibitor, cytochalasin D (CytD); however, cells exposed to resveratrol showed greater sensitivity than ceramide-treated cells. Ceramide-treated cells underwent a dose-dependent reduction in trans-membrane potential. Although both ceramide and resveratrol induced the expressions of caspase-3 and -7, the effect of inducible COX-2 was different in caspase-7 expression induced by ceramide compared to resveratrol. In summary, resveratrol and ceramide converge on an endocytosis-requiring, ERK1/2-dependent signal transduction pathway and induction of COX-expression as an essential molecular antecedent for subsequent p53-dependent apoptosis. In addition, expressions of caspase-3 and -7 are observed. However, a p38 kinase-dependent signal transduction pathway and change in mitochondrial potential are also involved in ceramide-induced apoptosis. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. HubMed – drug