Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu® Treatment – Comparative Studies With Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs.

Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment – comparative studies with eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61597
Duerrwald R, Schlegel M, Bauer K, Vissiennon T, Wutzler P, Schmidtke M

Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs. HubMed – drug


Drug Synergy of Tenofovir and Nanoparticle-Based Antiretrovirals for HIV Prophylaxis.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61416
Chaowanachan T, Krogstad E, Ball C, Woodrow KA

BACKGROUND: The use of drug combinations has revolutionized the treatment of HIV but there is no equivalent combination product that exists for prevention, particularly for topical HIV prevention. Strategies to combine chemically incompatible agents may facilitate the discovery of unique drug-drug activities, particularly unexplored combination drug synergy. We fabricated two types of nanoparticles, each loaded with a single antiretroviral (ARV) that acts on a specific step of the viral replication cycle. Here we show unique combination drug activities mediated by our polymeric delivery systems when combined with free tenofovir (TFV). METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with efavirenz (NP-EFV) or saquinavir (NP-SQV) were individually prepared by emulsion or nanoprecipitation techniques. Nanoparticles had reproducible size (d ?200 nm) and zeta potential (-25 mV). The drug loading of the nanoparticles was approximately 7% (w/w). NP-EFV and NP-SQV were nontoxic to TZM-bl cells and ectocervical explants. Both NP-EFV and NP-SQV exhibited potent protection against HIV-1 BaL infection in vitro. The HIV inhibitory effect of nanoparticle formulated ARVs showed up to a 50-fold reduction in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) compared to free drug. To quantify the activity arising from delivery of drug combinations, we calculated combination indices (CI) according to the median-effect principle. NP-EFV combined with free TFV demonstrated strong synergistic effects (CI50?=?0.07) at a 1?50 ratio of IC50 values and additive effects (CI50?=?1.05) at a 1?1 ratio of IC50 values. TFV combined with NP-SQV at a 1?1 ratio of IC50 values also showed strong synergy (CI50?=?0.07). CONCLUSIONS: ARVs with different physicochemical properties can be encapsulated individually into nanoparticles to potently inhibit HIV. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that combining TFV with either NP-EFV or NP-SQV results in pronounced combination drug effects, and emphasize the potential of nanoparticles for the realization of unique drug-drug activities. HubMed – drug


Effects of microparticle size and fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e60989
Pacheco P, White D, Sulchek T

Controlled induction of phagocytosis in macrophages offers the ability to therapeutically regulate the immune system as well as improve delivery of chemicals or biologicals for immune processing. Maximizing particle uptake by macrophages through Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis could lead to new delivery mechanisms in drug or vaccine development. Fc ligand density and particle size were examined independently and in combination in order to optimize and tune the phagocytosis of opsonized microparticles. We show the internalization efficiency of small polystyrene particles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) is significantly affected by changes in Fc ligand density, while particles greater than 2 µm show little correlation between internalization and Fc density. We found that while macrophages can efficiently phagocytose a large number of smaller particles, the total volume of phagocytosed particles is maximized through the non-specific uptake of larger microparticles. Therefore, larger microparticles may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population. This study is the first to treat as independent variables the physical and biological properties of Fc density and microparticle size that initiate macrophage phagocytosis. Defining the physical and biological parameters that affect phagocytosis efficiency will lead to improved methods of microparticle delivery to macrophages. HubMed – drug