Effects of Non-Invasive Neurostimulation on Craving: A Meta-Analysis.

Effects of non-invasive neurostimulation on craving: a meta-analysis.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Jul 31;
Jansen JM, Daams JG, Koeter MW, Veltman DJ, van den Brink W, Groudiaan AE

JANSEN, J.M., J.G. Daams, M.W.J. Koeter, D.J. Veltman, W. van den Brink, and A.E. Goudriaan. Effects of non-invasive neurostimulation on craving: a meta-analysis NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV xx(x) XXX-XXX, 2013 – This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the available evidence regarding the effects of non-invasive neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), on craving in substance dependence and craving for high palatable food. Non-invasive neurostimulation techniques were restricted to repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). A total of 17 eligible studies were identified. Random effects analysis revealed a pooled standardized effect size (Hedge’sg) of 0.476 (CI: 0.316-0.636), indicating a medium effect size favoring active non-invasive neurostimulation over sham stimulation in the reduction of craving (z=5.832, p<0.001). No significant differences were found between rTMS and tDCS, between the various substances of abuse and between substances of abuse and food, or between left and right DLPFC stimulation. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides the first clear evidence that non-invasive neurostimulation of the DLPFC decreases craving levels in substance dependence. HubMed – addiction

Neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to stress-related cocaine use.

Neuropharmacology. 2013 Aug 2;
Mantsch JR, Vranjkovic O, Twining RC, Gasser PJ, McReynolds JR, Blacktop JM

The ability of stressful life events to trigger drug use is particularly problematic for the management of cocaine addiction due to the unpredictable and often uncontrollable nature of stress. For this reason, understanding the neurobiological processes that contribute to stress-related drug use is important for the development of new and more effective treatment strategies aimed at minimizing the role of stress in the addiction cycle. In this review we discuss the neurocircuitry that has been implicated in stress-induced drug use with an emphasis on corticotropin releasing factor actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and an important pathway from the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to the VTA that is regulated by norepinephrine via actions at beta adrenergic receptors. In addition to the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie stress-induced cocaine seeking, we review findings suggesting that the ability of stressful stimuli to trigger cocaine use emerges and intensifies in an intake-dependent manner with repeated cocaine self-administration. Further, we discuss evidence that the drug-induced neuroadaptations that are necessary for heightened susceptibility to stress-induced drug use are reliant on elevated levels of glucocorticoid hormones at the time of cocaine use. Finally, the potential ability of stress to function as a “stage setter” for drug use – increasing sensitivity to cocaine and drug-associated cues – under conditions where it does not directly trigger cocaine seeking is discussed. As our understanding of the mechanisms through which stress promotes drug use advances, the hope is that so too will the available tools for effectively managing addiction, particularly in cocaine addicts whose drug use is stress-driven. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue’. HubMed – addiction

Psychobiology of cocaine addiction: Contribution of a multi-symptomatic animal model of loss of control.

Neuropharmacology. 2013 Aug 2;
Deroche-Gamonet V, Piazza PV

Transition to addiction is the shift from controlled to uncontrolled drug use that occurs after prolonged drug intake in a limited number of drug users. A major challenge of addiction research in recent years has been to develop models for studying this pathological transition. Toward this goal, a DSM-IV/5-based multi-symptomatic model of cocaine addiction has been developed in the rat. It is based on an operational translation of the main features of the disease. 1. Addiction is not just taking drug; it is a non-adaptive drug use: The procedure models addiction in relation to its clinical definition. 2. All drug users do not face the same individual risk of developing addiction: The model includes an individual-based approach. 3. Addiction develops after protracted periods of controlled drug use: This procedure allows for the study of the long-term shift from controlled drug use to addiction. We describe this model in detail and show how it can contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of cocaine addiction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue’. HubMed – addiction