Effects of Acculturation on Lifestyle and Health Status Among Older Vietnam-Born Australians.

Effects of Acculturation on Lifestyle and Health Status Among Older Vietnam-Born Australians.

Asia Pac J Public Health. 2013 Jul 15;
Tran DT, Jorm L, Johnson M, Bambrick H, Lujic S

Vietnamese immigrants represent a substantial culturally and linguistically diverse population of Australia, but little is known about the health-related effects of acculturation in this population. This study investigated the relationship between measures of acculturation and lifestyle behaviors and health status among 797 older Vietnam-born Australians who participated in the 45 and Up Study (www.45andup.org.au). The findings suggested that higher degrees of acculturation were associated with increased consumption of red meat, white meat, and seafood; higher levels of physical activities; and lower prevalence of overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, and smoking (in men). Targeted health messages could emphasize eating more vegetables, avoiding smoking and alcohol drinking, and increasing levels of physical activity. HubMed – eating

Psychosocial interventions for patients with head and neck cancer.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 16; 7: CD009441
Semple C, Parahoo K, Norman A, McCaughan E, Humphris G, Mills M

A diagnosis of head and neck cancer, like many other cancers, can lead to significant psychosocial distress. Patients with head and neck cancer can have very specific needs, due to both the location of their disease and the impact of treatment, which can interfere with basic day-to-day activities such as eating, speaking and breathing. There is a lack of clarity on the effectiveness of the interventions developed to address the psychosocial distress experienced by patients living with head and neck cancer.To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to improve quality of life and psychosocial well-being for patients with head and neck cancer.We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 17 December 2012.We selected randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials of psychosocial interventions for adults with head and neck cancer. For trials to be included the psychosocial intervention had to involve a supportive relationship between a trained helper and individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer. Outcomes had to be assessed using a validated quality of life or psychological distress measure, or both.Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias, with mediation from a third author where required. Where possible, we extracted outcome measures for combining in meta-analyses. We compared continuous outcomes using either mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with a random-effects model. We conducted meta-analyses for the primary outcome measure of quality of life and secondary outcome measures of psychological distress, including anxiety and depression. We subjected the remaining outcome measures (self esteem, coping, adjustment to cancer, body image) to a narrative synthesis, due to the limited number of studies evaluating these specific outcomes and the wide divergence of assessment tools used.Seven trials, totaling 542 participants, met the eligibility criteria. Studies varied widely on risk of bias, interventions used and outcome measures reported. From these studies, there was no evidence to suggest that psychosocial intervention promotes global quality of life for patients with head and neck cancer at end of intervention (MD 1.23, 95% CI -5.82 to 8.27) as measured by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). This quality of life tool includes five functional scales, namely cognitive, physical, emotional, social and role. There was no evidence to demonstrate that psychosocial intervention provides an immediate or medium-term improvement on any of these five functional scales. From the data available, there was no significant change in levels of anxiety (SMD -0.09, 95% CI -0.40 to 0.23) or depression following intervention (SMD -0.03, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.19). At present, there is insufficient evidence to refute or support the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention for patients with head and neck cancer.The evidence for psychosocial intervention is limited by the small number of studies, methodological shortcomings such as lack of power, difficulties with comparability between types of interventions and a wide divergence in outcome measures used. Future research should be targeted at patients who screen positive for distress and use validated outcome measures, such as the EORTC scale, as a measure of quality of life. These studies should implement interventions that are theoretically derived. Other shortcomings should be addressed in future studies, including using power calculations that may encourage multi-centred collaboration to ensure adequate sample sizes are recruited. HubMed – eating

Mental and Physical disability after sepsis.

Minerva Anestesiol. 2013 Jul 15;
Jones C, Griffiths RD

Sepsis remains a major cause of admissions to Intensive Care Units (ICU) and has a high mortality rates and significant morbidity in survivors. There are physical, cognitive and psychological sequelae from severe sepsis that have a negative effect on the patients’ health related quality of life in the longer term and a social care and humanitarian impact. Although muscle mass loss during the septic period happens very quickly recovery takes a considerable time and requires the patient to commit to exercising and eating well to rebuild. Where cognitive impairment has resulted from the septic illness the patients’ ability to look after themselves may be affected and this has financial and family implications for future care. Patients may also develop psychological problems such as anxiety, depression or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which can have a profound effect on their everyday functioning and the possibility of returning to work. As yet there are no published studies of rehabilitation with patients surviving severe sepsis, although there is one in progress at the moment. The use of techniques such as ICU diaries to help patients to understand their illness and deal with delusional memories they may have from their ICU stay has been shown to aid psychological recovery in general ICU patients, a percentage of whom will have suffered from sepsis. The use of a self-guided manualised 6 week rehabilitation programme, the ICU Recovery Manual, has been shown to accelerate physical recovery in general ICU patients. Considerable amounts of money are spent treating patients with severe sepsis in ICU and not completing the job of returning them to as close as possible to their normal functioning does not make financial sense. HubMed – eating

Assessing Psychosocial Functioning of Bariatric Surgery Candidates with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF).

Obes Surg. 2013 Jul 16;
Marek RJ, Ben-Porath YS, Windover A, Tarescavage AM, Merrell J, Ashton K, Lavery M, Heinberg LJ

Psychological comorbidity is common in bariatric surgery candidates. Many multidisciplinary teams incorporate psychometric testing to screen for psychological factors that, if left unattended, may negatively impact surgical results. Here, we report descriptive findings and empirical correlates of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales among of bariatric surgery candidates undergoing a pre-surgical psychological evaluation.The sample consisted of male (n?=?324) and female (n?=?658) patients seeking bariatric surgery who were administered the MMPI-2-RF at their psychological evaluation. Psychosocial and medical variables were retrospectively coded from the patients’ medical records. These criteria included history/current mental health diagnoses and treatments, maladaptive eating behaviors/diagnoses, past/current substance use, abuse history, sleep apnea, and denial of surgery.Descriptive analyses demonstrated similar findings for male and female candidates and replicated previous reports. MMPI-2-RF scales measuring emotional dysfunction were associated with maladaptive eating patterns, a history of Major Depressive Disorder, and previous suicide attempts. Scale scores measuring behavioral dysfunction were associated with current/past substance use and previous physical abuse. MMPI-2-RF scale scores measuring somatic problems were associated with a higher BMI at the time of surgery, sleep apnea diagnosis/adherence, physical/sexual abuse history, active mood disorder, previous mental health diagnoses, and maladaptive eating patterns.The MMPI-2-RF can aid in identifying a broad range of psychological comorbidity among bariatric surgery candidates. When used in conjunction with a pre-surgical psychological interview, it can aid in the assessment of psychological factors relevant to pre-surgical psychological assessment of bariatric surgery candidates. HubMed – eating

stress ,anxiety, eating disorders