Effect of Zeolite Nano-Materials and Artichoke (Cynara Scolymus L.) Leaf Extract on Increase in Urinary Clearance of Systematically Absorbed Nicotine.

Effect of Zeolite Nano-Materials and Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Leaf Extract on Increase in Urinary Clearance of Systematically Absorbed Nicotine.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Arzneimittelforschung. 2012 Nov 29;
Malekshah RE, Mahjub R, Rastgarpanah M, Ghorbani M, Partoazar AR, Mehr SE, Dehpour AR, Dorkoosh FA

Nicotine, the main pharmacologically active component in tobacco and cigarette, has some toxic effects and also high potential for addiction. In this study, the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and zeolite nano-materials on urinary excretion of nicotine and consequently elimination of systematically absorbed nicotine was investigated. A simple, valid and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of nicotine in rat urine according to guidelines for bioanalysis.It was found that nano-zeolites can cause increase in urinary concentration of nicotine due to its high surface adsorption. Artichoke leaf extract can cause increase in urinary excretion of nicotine in longer post administration times. It was observed that co-administration of nanozeolites and the leaf extract has the synergetic effect on increasing the urinary excretion of nicotine.
HubMed – addiction


Risks and predictors of current suicidality in HIV-infected heroin users in treatment in Yunnan, China: A controlled study.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Nov 28;
Jin H, Atkinson JH, Duarte NA, Yu X, Shi C, Riggs PK, Li J, Gupta S, Wolfson T, Knight A, Franklin D, Letendre S, Wu Z, Grant I, Heaton RK,

OBJECTIVE:: Suicide is an important public health problem in China. Elsewhere injection drug use and HIV infection have independently been associated with suicidality, but research has often overlooked these high-risk groups in China. We determined the frequency and predictors of suicidal ideas in Chinese, HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) heroin injection drug users in treatment (IDUs) and a control sample. We hypothesized that rates of suicidal ideas would be significantly higher among IDUs compared to controls, and highest among HIV+ IDUs. METHOD:: We assessed suicidal ideas within the past two weeks in HIV+ (N = 204) and HIV- (N = 202) heroin IDUs in methadone treatment in Yunnan, a province at the intersection of the heroin and HIV epidemics, and in demographically matched, uninfected non-drug using controls (N = 201). RESULTS:: Rates of suicidality were higher in IDUs than controls but there was no additive effect of HIV infection (HIV+ IDU 43.1%; HIV- IDU 37.1%; controls 8.5%). Among HIV+ IDUs suicidality was associated most strongly with a combination of prior history of major depression, low perceived social support, and experience of HIV-relevant stress, but not with AIDS diagnosis. Among HIV- IDUs suicidality was associated with prior history of major depressive or alcohol use disorder. Less than 25% of IDUs with suicidality had histories of mood or alcohol use diagnoses. CONCLUSION:: Because suicidal ideation is frequent in IDUs in China, regardless of HIV status, and is not fully accounted for by past psychiatric history, additional research may be warranted.
HubMed – addiction


The waterpipe: An emerging global risk for cancer.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Cancer Epidemiol. 2012 Nov 26;
Maziak W

Tobacco smoking continues to be the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Each year more than 5 million smokers die prematurely because of their habit wreaking havoc on the welfare of families and communities worldwide. While cigarettes remain the main tobacco killer worldwide, for many youth tobacco use and addiction is maintained by means other than cigarettes. In particular, over the past decade, waterpipe smoking (a.k.a. hookah, shisha, narghile) has become increasingly popular among youth in the Middle East, and is rapidly spreading globally. Available evidence suggests that waterpipe smoking is associated with many of the known risks of tobacco smoking, particularly cancer. Despite these worrisome signs, policies and interventions to address this emerging public health problem have been lagging behind. In this short review I discuss briefly the evidence generated mostly in the past decade about the global spread of waterpipe smoking and its cancer risk potential.
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Pragati: an empowerment programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Glob Health Action. 2012; 5: 1-11
Euser SM, Souverein D, Rama Narayana Gowda P, Shekhar Gowda C, Grootendorst D, Ramaiah R, Barot S, Kumar S, Jenniskens F, Kumar S, Den Boer J

Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000-12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman’s needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR) age 28 (24-35) years]. The programme’s personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion: This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population.
HubMed – addiction



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