Effect of Pilot Hole on Biomechanical and in Vivo Pedicle Screw-Bone Interface.

Effect of pilot hole on biomechanical and in vivo pedicle screw-bone interface.

Eur Spine J. 2013 May 8;
Silva P, Rosa RC, Shimano AC, Defino HL

PURPOSE: To experimentally study the influence of pilot hole diameter (smaller than or equal to the internal (core) diameter of the screw) on biomechanical (insertion torque and pullout strength) and histomorphometric parameters of screw-bone interface in the acute phase and 8 weeks after pedicle screw insertion. METHODS: Fifteen sheep were operated upon and pedicle screws inserted in the L1-L3 pedicles bilaterally. The pilot hole was smaller (2.0 mm) than the internal diameter (core) of the screw on the left side pedicle and equal (2.8 mm) to the internal diameter (core) of the screw on the right side pedicle. Ten animals were sacrificed immediately (five animals were assigned to pullout strength tests and five animals were used for histomorphometric bone-screw interface evaluation). Five animals were sacrificed 8 weeks after pedicle screw insertion for histomorphometric bone-screw interface evaluation. RESULTS: The insertion torque and pullout strength were significantly greater in pedicle screws inserted into pilot holes smaller than internal (core) diameter of the screw. Histomorphometric evaluation of bone-screw interface showed that the percentage of bone-implant contact, the area of bone inside the screw thread and the area of bone outside the screw thread were significantly higher for pilot holes smaller than the internal (core) diameter of the screw immediately after insertion and after 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: A pilot diameter smaller than the internal (core) diameter of the screw improved the insertion torque and pullout strength immediately after screw insertion as well the pedicle screw-bone interface contact immediately and 8 weeks after screw placement in sheep with good bone mineral density. HubMed – rehab


Ketorolac administration does not delay early fracture healing in a juvenile rat model: a pilot study.

J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Jun; 33(4): 415-21
Cappello T, Nuelle JA, Katsantonis N, Nauer RK, Lauing KL, Jagodzinski JE, Callaci JJ

: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective at controlling pain in children, especially in the treatment of fractures. Adult animal and adult clinical studies demonstrate conflicting evidence for the inhibitory relationship between NSAIDs and fracture healing. Published pediatric orthopaedic clinical studies do not demonstrate an inhibitory effect of ketorolac on bone healing. Little is known about the effects of any NSAID on bone formation in juvenile animals. This study investigates the effects of the NSAID ketorolac on fracture healing in a juvenile rat model.: Unilateral surgically induced and stabilized tibial shaft fractures were created in 45 juvenile (3 to 4 wk old) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Either ketorolac (5 mg/kg; n=24) or saline (0.9% normal saline; n=21) was then administered to the rats 6 d/wk by intraperitoneal injections. Animals were then randomly assigned into time groups and euthanized at 7 days (n=8 ketorolac, n=7 saline), 14 days (n=8 ketorolac, n=7 saline), or 21 days (n=8 ketorolac, n=7 saline) postfracture. Biomechanical analysis was performed using a custom-designed 4-point bending loading apparatus. Statistics for tibial stiffness and strength data were performed using software package Systat 11. Specimens were also evaluated histologically using hematoxylin and eosin staining.: Strength and stiffness of all fractured tibiae increased over time from day 7 to day 21 regardless of treatment type. No statistical difference was found between the fractured tibiae strength or stiffness in the ketorolac or control-treated specimens at the same time point. In addition, the quality of the fracture callus was similar in both groups at each of the time points.: In this study of a juvenile rat model with a stabilized tibia fracture, fracture callus strength, stiffness, and histologic characteristics were not affected by the administration of ketorolac during the first 21 days of fracture healing.: The absence of inhibitory effects of ketorolac on early juvenile rat fracture healing supports the clinical practice of utilizing NSAIDs for analgesia in children with long bone fractures. HubMed – rehab


Testosterone replacement for fatigue in hypogonadal ambulatory males with advanced cancer: a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

Support Care Cancer. 2013 May 8;
Del Fabbro E, Garcia JM, Dev R, Hui D, Williams J, Engineer D, Palmer JL, Schover L, Bruera E

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled studies show fatigue, anorexia, depression, and mortality are associated with low testosterone in men with cancer. Testosterone replacement improves quality of life and diminishes fatigue in patients with non-cancer conditions. The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement on fatigue in hypogonadal males with advanced cancer, by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue subscale (FACIT-Fatigue) at day 29. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Outpatients with advanced cancer, bioavailable testosterone (BT) <70 ng/dL and fatigue score >3/10 on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale were eligible. Intra-muscular testosterone or sesame seed oil placebo was administered every 14 days to achieve BT levels 70-270 ng/dL. RESULTS: Sixteen placebo and 13 testosterone-treated subjects were evaluable. No statistically significant difference was found for FACIT-fatigue scores between arms (-2?±?12 for placebo, 4?±?8 for testosterone, p?=?0.11). Sexual Desire Inventory score (p?=?0.054) and performance status (p?=?0.02) improved in the testosterone group. Fatigue subscale scores were significantly better (p?=?0.03) in those treated with testosterone by day 72. CONCLUSIONS: Four weeks of intramuscular testosterone replacement in hypogonadal male patients with advanced cancer did not significantly improve quality of life. Larger studies of longer duration are warranted. HubMed – rehab


Rehabilitation: the important role of the interdisciplinary team in home care.

Home Healthc Nurse. 2013 May; 31(5): 237-8
Marrelli TM

HubMed – rehab