Effect of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Sexual Dysfunction in Women With Type 2 Diabetes: Results From an Ancillary Look AHEAD Study.

Effect of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Sexual Dysfunction in Women With Type 2 Diabetes: Results from an ancillary Look AHEAD study.

Diabetes Care. 2013 Jun 11;
Wing RR, Bond DS, Gendrano IN, Wadden T, Bahnson J, Lewis CE, Brancati F, Schneider S, Kitabchi AE, Van Dorsten B, Rosen RC,

OBJECTIVESexual dysfunction is a prevalent problem in obese women with type 2 diabetes. This study examined the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in these women.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSLook AHEAD is a 16-center, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the health effects of ILI compared with a control group (diabetes support and education [DSE]). The Look AHEAD Sexual Function Ancillary study included 375 female participants at five Look AHEAD sites. Participants completed the Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and assessments of weight and cardiovascular risk factors at baseline and 1 year were made.RESULTSAt baseline, 50% of the 229 participants who reported being sexually active met criteria for female sexual dysfunction (FSD); only BDI score was related to FSD. One-year weight losses were greater in the ILI group than in the DSE group (7.6 vs. 0.45 kg; P < 0.001). Among women with FSD at baseline, those in the ILI group (N = 60) compared with those in the DSE group (N = 53) were significantly more likely to remain sexually active (83 vs. 64%; P < 0.008), reported greater improvement in total FSFI scores and in most FSFI domains (P < 0.05), and were more likely to experience remission of FSD (28 vs. 11%; P < 0.04) at 1 year. No significant differences between ILI and DSE were seen in women who did not have FSD at baseline.CONCLUSIONSParticipation in ILI appeared to have beneficial effects on sexual functioning among obese women with diabetes, particularly in those who had FSD at baseline. HubMed – depression


Diminished Infant P50 Sensory Gating Predicts Increased 40-Month-Old Attention, Anxiety/Depression, and Externalizing Symptoms.

J Atten Disord. 2013 Jun 11;
Hutchison AK, Hunter SK, Wagner BD, Calvin EA, Zerbe GO, Ross RG

Objective: When behavioral problems resulting from attentional difficulties present, often in preschool, it is unknown whether these problems represent preexisting altered brain development or new brain changes. This study examines whether infant sensory gating of auditory evoked potentials predicts parent-reported behavior at 40 months. Method: P50 sensory gating, an auditory evoked potential measure reflective of inhibitory processes in the brain, was measured in 50 infants around 70 days old. Parents, using the Child Behavior Checklist, reported on the child’s behavior at 40 months. Results: Controlling for gender, infants with diminished sensory gating had more problems later with externalizing behavior (F = 4.17, ndf = 1, ddf = 46, p = .047), attentional problems (F = 5.23, ndf = 1, ddf = 46, p = .027), and anxious/depressed symptoms (F = 5.36, ndf = 1, ddf = 46, p = .025). Conclusion: Diminished infant P50 sensory gating predicts attention symptoms 3 years later. These results support the hypothesis that preschool attentional dysfunction may relate to altered brain development that is detectable years prior to symptom onset. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). HubMed – depression


Serotonin 5-HT1A Receptors as Targets for Agents to Treat Psychiatric Disorders: Rationale and Current Status of Research.

CNS Drugs. 2013 Jun 12;
Celada P, Bortolozzi A, Artigas F

Psychiatric disorders represent a large economic burden in modern societies. However, pharmacological treatments are still far from optimal. Drugs used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (selective serotonin [5-HT] reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]) are pharmacological refinements of first-generation tricyclic drugs, discovered by serendipity, and show low efficacy and slowness of onset. Moreover, antipsychotic drugs are partly effective in positive symptoms of schizophrenia, yet they poorly treat negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The present article reviews the neurobiological basis of 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) function and the role of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs in the treatment of MDD, anxiety and psychotic disorders. The activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs in corticolimbic areas appears beneficial for the therapeutic action of antidepressant drugs. However, presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs play a detrimental role in MDD, since individuals with high density or function of presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs are more susceptible to mood disorders and suicide, and respond poorly to antidepressant drugs. Moreover, the indirect activation of presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs by SSRIs/SNRIs reduces 5-HT neuron activity and terminal 5-HT release, thus opposing the elevation of extracellular 5-HT produced by blockade of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the forebrain. Chronic antidepressant treatment desensitizes presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs, thus reducing the effectiveness of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated negative feedback. The prevention of this process by the non-selective partial agonist pindolol accelerates clinical antidepressant effects. Two new antidepressant drugs, vilazodone (marketed in the USA) and vortioxetine (in development) incorporate partial 5-HT1A-R agonist properties with SERT blockade. Several studies with transgenic mice have also established the respective role of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs in MDD and anxiety. In agreement with pharmacological studies, presynaptic and postsynaptic 5-HT1A-R activation appears necessary for anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, respectively, yet, neurodevelopmental roles for 5-HT1A-Rs are also involved. Likewise, the use of small interference RNA has enabled the showing of robust antidepressant-like effects in mice after selective knock-down of 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) also appear important for the superior clinical effects of clozapine and other second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Despite showing a moderate in vitro affinity for 5-HT1A-Rs in binding assays, clozapine displays functional agonist properties at this receptor type in vivo. The stimulation of 5-HT1A-Rs in the PFC leads to the distal activation of the mesocortical pathway and to an increased dopamine release in PFC, an effect likely involved in the clinical actions of clozapine in negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The anxiolytic/antidepressant properties of 5-HT1A-R agonists in preclinical tests raised expectations enormously. However, these agents have achieved little clinical success, possibly due to their partial agonist character at postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs, together with full agonist properties at presynaptic 5-HT1A autoreceptors, as well as their gastrointestinal side effects. The partial 5-HT1A-R agonists buspirone, gepirone, and tandospirone are marketed as anxiolytic drugs, and buspirone is also used as an augmentation strategy in MDD. The development of new 5-HT1A-R agonists with selectivity for postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs may open new perspectives in the field. HubMed – depression