Effect of Amphetamine on the Clock Gene Expression in Rat Striatum.

Effect of amphetamine on the clock gene expression in rat striatum.

Neurosci Lett. 2013 Mar 18;
Wongchitrat P, Mukda S, Phansuwan-Pujito P, Govitrapong P

Drug addicts have severe disruptions in many physiological and behavioral rhythms, such as the sleep/wake cycle. Interestingly, amphetamine, a psychostimulant, is able to alter many circadian patterns, which are independent of the master biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. To increase our understanding of the circadian regulation of amphetamine on clock gene expression, rats received subcutaneous injections of D-amphetamine and the clock gene mRNA levels were analyzed using real-time PCR to obtain a daily profile. In the striatum, acute injection of D-amphetamine did not alter Period (Per)1, Per2 and Reverse erythroblastosis virus ? (Rev-erb?) expressions. Chronic administration shifted the phase of Per1 and Per2 expressions from a nocturnal to diurnal pattern and advance shifted the peak of Rev-erb? in D-amphetamine-treated animals. In contrast, the rhythm of Brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (Bmal1) was shifted from a diurnal to a nocturnal pattern by both acute and chronic treatments. These results demonstrated that chronic D-amphetamine treatment altered the expression of clock genes in the striatum. This might further influence the expression of related gene within the striatum and lead to behavioral and physiological changes which are associated to drug addiction. HubMed – addiction


Motivational neuroscience: instant desire for something you know is bad.

Curr Biol. 2013 Mar 18; 23(6): R239-41
Crystal JD

Avoiding what you know is bad is a major challenge for recovering addicts. New research suggests that powerful desire can develop even for cues that have always been repulsive. Memories about learned cues can promote addiction in certain conditions. HubMed – addiction


Enhancing screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment among socioeconomically disadvantaged patients: study protocol for a knowledge exchange intervention involving patients and physicians.

BMC Health Serv Res. 2013 Mar 22; 13(1): 108
Salvalaggio G, Dong K, Vandenberghe C, Kirkland S, Mramor K, Brown T, Taylor M, McKim R, Cummings GG, Wild TC

BACKGROUND: Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) is an effective approach for managing alcohol and other drug misuse in primary care; however, uptake into routine care has been limited. Uptake of SBIRT by healthcare providers may be particularly problematic for disadvantaged populations exhibiting alcohol and other drug problems, and requires creative approaches to enhance patient engagement. This knowledge translation project developed and evaluated a group of patient and health care provider resources designed to enhance the capacity of health care providers to use SBIRT and improve patient engagement with health care. METHODS: A nonrandomized, two-group, pre-post, quasi-experimental intervention design was used, with baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Low income patients using alcohol and other drugs and who sought care in family medicine and emergency medicine settings in Edmonton, Canada, along with physicians providing care in these settings, were recruited. Patients and physicians were allocated to the intervention or control condition by geographic location of care. Intervention patients received a health care navigation booklet developed by inner city community members and also had access to an experienced community member for consultation on health service navigation. Intervention physicians had access to online educational modules, accompanying presentations, point of care resources, addiction medicine champions, and orientations to the inner city. Resource development was informed by a literature review, needs assessment, and iterative consultation with an advisory board and other content experts. Participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires (6 months for patients, 6 and 12 months for physicians) and administrative health service data were also retrieved for consenting patients. Control participants were provided access to all resources after follow-up data collection was completed. The primary outcome measure was patient satisfaction with care; secondary outcome measures included alcohol and drug use, health care and addiction treatment use, uptake of SBIRT strategies, and physician attitudes about addiction. DISCUSSION: Effective knowledge translation requires careful consideration of the intended knowledge recipient’s context and needs. Knowledge translation in disadvantaged settings may be optimized by using a community-based participatory approach to resource development that takes into account relevant patient engagement issues.Trial registration: Northern Alberta Clinical Trials and Research Centre #30094. HubMed – addiction