Eating Location Is Associated With the Nutritional Quality of the Diet in Norwegian Adults.

Eating location is associated with the nutritional quality of the diet in Norwegian adults.

Public Health Nutr. 2013 Mar 12; 1-9
Myhre JB, Løken EB, Wandel M, Andersen LF

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between dinner eating location and the nutritional quality of the specific dinner meal and the whole-day dietary intake and to compare the diets of those consuming ?25 % of energy out of home and at school/work (SOH; substantial out-of-home eaters) with those consuming <25 % of energy out (NSOH; non-substantial out-of-home eaters). DESIGN: Cross-sectional dietary survey using two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Recorded eating locations were at home, other private households, work/school, restaurant/cafeteria/fast-food outlet and travel/meeting. SETTING: Nationwide, Norway (2010-2011). SUBJECTS: Adults aged 18-70 years (n 1746). RESULTS: Dinners at restaurants and other private households were higher in energy than home dinners (P < 0·01). Restaurant dinners contained less fibre (g/MJ; P < 0·01) and had a higher percentage of alcohol consumers (P < 0·05), while dinners at other private households had a higher percentage of energy from sugar (P < 0·001) and a higher percentage of consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages (P < 0·05) than home dinners. Most differences between dinners consumed at different eating locations were also observed in dietary intakes for the whole day. SOH-eaters had a higher energy intake (P < 0·01), a higher percentage of energy from sugar (P < 0·01) and a lower fibre intake (P < 0·01) than NSOH-eaters. The percentages of consumers of alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages were higher (P < 0·01) among SOH-eaters. CONCLUSIONS: Dinner eating location was significantly associated with the nutritional quality of the diet, both for the specific dinner meal and for whole-day intake. Our data generally point to healthier dinners being consumed at home. SOH-eaters had a less favourable dietary intake than NSOH-eaters. HubMed – eating


The experience of food, eating and meals following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: a qualitative study.

J Clin Nurs. 2013 Apr; 22(7-8): 1034-1043
Ottosson S, Laurell G, Olsson C

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the experience of food, eating and meals following radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. BACKGROUND: Eating problems are common in patients with head and neck cancer and may remain for a long period of time after treatment. DESIGN: A qualitative study design using in-depth semi-structured interviews. METHODS: Interviews were conducted nine months after the termination of radiotherapy. A purposive sample of thirteen patients with head and neck cancer participated in the study. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: The experience of food, eating and meals up to nine months after radiotherapy was captured in six categories: ‘A long journey – taking small steps to an uncertain future’, ‘A new way of eating’, ‘Eating without satisfaction’, ‘Challenging meals outside the family’, ‘Support and information – the key to a successful journey’ and ‘The creation and acceptance of a new normal’. CONCLUSION: This study provides new information on the long-term aspects of food, eating and meals in patients with head and neck cancer. Head and neck cancer signifies a long journey with problems affecting physical, psychological and social aspects of food. Information and support and the use of strategies are important for patients with head and neck cancer to adapt to new possibilities for living after cancer treatment. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: All members of the multiprofessional team need to be aware of the struggles with food and eating experienced by patients with head and neck cancer during the convalescent period. It is therefore important that the follow-up focuses on all aspects of food, eating and meals as a part of a holistic approach. HubMed – eating


Using DNA barcoding to link cystacanths and adults of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus brevis in central Mexico.

Mol Ecol Resour. 2013 Mar 9;
Alcántar-Escalera FJ, García-Varela M, Vázquez-Domínguez E, Pérez-Ponce de León G

In parasitic organisms, particularly helminths, the usage of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene as the standard DNA barcoding region for species identification and discovery has been very limited. Here, we present an integrated study, based on both DNA barcoding and morphological analyses, for acanthocephalans belonging to the genus Polymorphus, whose larvae (cystacanths) are commonly found in the mesentery of freshwater fishes, while adults are found in the intestine of fish-eating birds. The alpha taxonomy of parasitic helminths is based on adult morphological traits, and because of that larval forms cannot be identified to species level based on morphology alone. DNA barcoding offers an alternative tool for linking larval stages of parasitic organisms to known adults. We sequenced cystacanths collected from freshwater fishes in localities across central Mexico and adults obtained from fish-eating birds, to determine whether they were conspecific. To corroborate the molecular results, we conducted a morphometric analysis with ‘Proboscis profiler’, which is a software tool developed to detect heterogeneity in morphologically similar acanthocephalans based on the multivariate statistical analysis of proboscis hook dimensions. Both sources of information indicate that cystacanths infecting freshwater fishes in central Mexico belong to a single species, Polymorphus brevis. HubMed – eating


Dissonance-based interventions for health behaviour change: A systematic review.

Br J Health Psychol. 2013 May; 18(2): 310-337
Freijy T, Kothe EJ

PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that various health behaviours are amenable to change following the induction of cognitive dissonance. This systematic review sought to evaluate the effectiveness and methodological quality of dissonance-based health behaviour interventions and to explore identified sources of heterogeneity in intervention effects. METHODS: Bibliographic databases were searched for relevant articles from inception to March 2012. Only studies targeting non-clinical health behaviour in non-clinical populations were included in the review. One author extracted data and assessed quality of evidence and a second author verified all content. RESULTS: Reports of 20 studies were included. A variety of health behaviours and outcome measures were addressed across studies. Most studies produced one or more significant effects on measures of behaviour, attitude or intention. Across studies, methodological risk for bias was frequently high, particularly for selection bias. Gender and self-esteem were identified as potential moderator variables. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence for the effectiveness of dissonance-based interventions was generally positive. The hypocrisy paradigm was found to be the most commonly applied research paradigm and was most effective at inciting change across a range of health behaviours. There was no observable link between type of target behaviour and positive outcomes. Researchers are encouraged to minimize potential for bias in future studies and explore moderators of the dissonance effect. STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION: What is already known on this subject? A recent meta-analysis indicates that dissonance-based interventions primarily based on the induced compliance paradigm are effective for eating disorder prevention (Stice, Shaw, Becker, & Rohde, 2008, Prev. Sci., 9, 114). However, it is currently unclear whether such outcomes are generalizable to interventions targeting non-clinical health behaviours such as smoking, sun protection and sexual risk taking. Other research indicates that studies based on the hypocrisy paradigm may lead to changes in non-clinical health behaviours (Stone & Fernandez, 2008, Soc. Personal. Psychol. Compass, 2, 1024; Stone & Focella, 2011, Self Identity, 10, 295) although this literature lacks systematic evaluation of interventions across a range of experimental paradigms. What does this study add? The hypocrisy paradigm appears most effective in inciting change across a range of non-clinical health behaviours. The dissonance effect may be moderated by variables such as self-esteem and gender. Risk of bias needs to be minimised to increase the validity of studies within this topic area. HubMed – eating


[The role of oxytocin and vasopressin in central nervous system activity and mental disorders].

Psychiatr Pol. 2012 Nov-Dec; 46(6): 1043-52
Wójciak P, Remlinger-Molenda A, Rybakowski J

Oxytocin and vasopressin, “peptides of love and fear”, except for their classic role in control of labor and breastfeeding and blood pressure regulation, are also implicated in various processes like sexual behaviours, social recognition and stress response. These hormones seems to be essential for appropriate and beneficial social interactions, play a very important role in maternal care and closeness, promote general trust and cooperation and prolong social memory. They also play a very important role in modulating fear and anxiety response, especially by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and amygdala activity by its projections to the brain stem and hypothalamic structures. Both hormones, particularly oxytocin, appears to be activating sexual behaviour or is responsible for increased sexual arousal. Evidence from clinical trials suggests their potential role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, depression, autism and addiction together with possible therapeutic use in the above conditions. In schizophrenia, patients with higher peripheral oxytocin levels showed less severe positive, general and social symptoms and better prosocial behaviours. Literature suggests that exogenous oxytocin may be effective as an adjunctive therapy for that illness. Some data suggest that naturally occurring autoantibodies reacting with oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in depression, eating disorders and conduct disorder genesis. HubMed – eating



Athletes and eating disorders – Ben Tracy profiles a 24-year-old former gymnast at UCLA, who battled eating disorders for two years after she was no longer doing gymnastics.