Eating Disorders: The Reproductive Toxicity of Melamine in the Absence and Presence of Cyanuric Acid in Male Mice.

The reproductive toxicity of melamine in the absence and presence of cyanuric acid in male mice.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Res Vet Sci. 2012 Dec 18;
Yin RH, Wang XZ, Bai WL, Wu CD, Yin RL, Li C, Liu J, Liu BS, He JB

Melamine, a chemical compound, was used widely in the manufacture of amino resins and plastics. Cyanuric acid related structurally to melamine was used as a water stabilizer in swimming pools. The combination of melamine and cyanuric acid was thought to be responsible for renal impairment in mammals. In the present work, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of melamine in the absence and presence of cyanuric acid in male mice. Pathological damages in different degrees were observed in the testis of male mice treated with different doses of both melamine alone and combination of melamine and cyanuric acid in a dose-dependent manner. Based on the TUNEL assay, the mice treated with high dose of melamine (50mg/kg/day) had a significant increase in apoptotic index of spermatogenic cells (p<0.05) compared with the control group. Sperm abnormality test indicated that melamine alone resulted in abnormal sperm morphology. The mice from co-administration groups of melamine and cyanuric acid were not eating, and were most likely in renal failure. The combined exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid was revealed to have certain toxic effects on testis of male mice at a relative low dose (each at 1mg/kg/day). Also, in comparison to melamine treated groups, more severe apoptosis was observed in co-administration groups of melamine and cyanuric acid with both middle (each at 5mg/kg/day) and high doses (each at 25mg/kg/day). However, all mice administrated with combination of melamine and cyanuric acid (each at 206, 412, or 824mg/kg/day) died before day 6 from which no data were obtained on sperm abnormality. These results from this study demonstrated that melamine had certain toxic effects on testes of male mice, especially when ingested in high concentration. These results might be useful in evaluating the toxicity of melamine on reproductive system of male animal, and they also would be a supplement to the existing toxic profile of melamine. HubMed – eating


An exploratory analysis of associations between eating disordered symptoms, perceived weight changes, and oral contraceptive discontinuation among young minority women.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Adolesc Health. 2013 Jan; 52(1): 58-63
Hall KS, White KO, Rickert VI, Reame NK, Westhoff CL

To explore associations between eating-disordered (ED) symptoms, perceived oral contraceptive (OC)-related weight changes, and OC discontinuation among young minority women.We conducted a prospective substudy of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of a pill pack supply (3 vs. 7 months) on OC continuation among young urban women presenting to a university-affiliated community-based family planning clinic for OC management. Participants (n = 354) were adolescent (n = 173) and young adult (n = 181) women aged 13-24 years, predominantly underinsured and largely Hispanic (92%). We conducted a structured baseline interview that included an ED screening instrument. At the 6-month follow-up, we conducted a telephone interview to determine OC continuation and dimensions of perceived OC-related weight changes during the study period.At baseline, 24% of the subjects fulfilled the moderate/severe ED symptom screen criteria (n = 60). By 6 months, 57% of the subjects (n = 200) reported weight changes and 62% (n = 218) had discontinued OC use. Unadjusted discontinuation rates were similar across age- and ED symptom groups. In multivariate analysis, both ED symptoms (odds ratio = .49, 95% confidence interval = .25-.96, p = .04) and perceived weight changes (odds ratio = .60, 95% confidence interval = .38-.94, p = .03) were negatively associated with OC continuation.ED symptoms and perceived weight changes were associated with an increased likelihood of OC discontinuation among these young women. Reproductive health practitioners should consider psychological symptoms when managing OC.
HubMed – eating


Relationships among tonic and episodic aspects of motivation to eat, gut peptides, and weight before and after bariatric surgery.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2012 Oct 12;
Bryant EJ, King NA, Falkén Y, Hellström PM, Juul Holst J, Blundell JE, Näslund E

BACKGROUND: The interaction between motivation to eat, eating behavior traits, and gut peptides after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is not fully understood. METHODS: Appetite and hormone responses to a fixed liquid preload were assessed in 12 obese (body mass index 45±1.9 kg/m(2)) participants immediately before and 3 days, 2 months, and 1 year after RYGB surgery. Subjective appetite and plasma levels of ghrelin, leptin, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured for a 3-hour postprandial period. Eating behavior traits were also measured using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire 18 (TFEQR18). RESULTS: There was a decrease in TFEQR18 emotional eating (EE) and uncontrolled eating (UE) from presurgery to 1 year postsurgery but no significant change in cognitive restraint (CR). These changes occurred independently of change in weight. In addition, there was a reduction in subjective appetite ratings and alterations in appetite peptides favoring an anorectic response. Presurgery EE was significantly related to fasting and area under the curve (AUC) ghrelin; UE was associated with AUC desire to eat, and there was a significant association between fasting desire to eat and ghrelin (fasting and AUC). One year postsurgery, UE was positively related to fasting insulin, and CR was negatively associated with GLP-1. UE and subjective hunger were positively correlated, while the relationship between desire to eat and ghrelin remained. CONCLUSION: The relationships among subjective appetite ratings, eating behavior traits, and appetite peptides in obese patients both before and at 1 year after RYGB surgery may contribute to the reduction in a propensity to overeat (as measured by TFEQR18 factors) and weight loss.
HubMed – eating



Killing Us Softly 4 – Trailer [Featuring Jean Kilbourne] – Now Available on DVD In this new, highly anticipated update of her pioneering Killing Us Softly series, the first in more than a decade, Jean Kilbourne takes a fresh look at how advertising traffics in distorted and destructive ideals of femininity. The film marshals a range of new print and television advertisements to lay bare a stunning pattern of damaging gender stereotypes — images and messages that too often reinforce unrealistic, and unhealthy, perceptions of beauty, perfection, and sexuality. By bringing Kilbourne’s groundbreaking analysis up to date, Killing Us Softly 4 stands to challenge a new generation of students to take advertising seriously, and to think critically about popular culture and its relationship to sexism, eating disorders, and gender violence. Jean Kilbourne, Ed.D. is internationally recognized for her groundbreaking work on the image of women in advertising and for her critical studies of alcohol and tobacco advertising. In the late 1960s she began her exploration of the connection between advertising and several public health issues, including violence against women, eating disorders, and addiction, and launched a movement to promote media literacy as a way to prevent these problems. A radical and original idea at the time, this approach is now mainstream and an integral part of most prevention programs. Her films, lectures and television appearances have been seen by millions of people throughout the world. Kilbourne was


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