Eating Disorders: The Facial and Subjective Emotional Reaction in Response to a Video Game Designed to Train Emotional Regulation (Playmancer).

The Facial and Subjective Emotional Reaction in Response to a Video Game Designed to Train Emotional Regulation (Playmancer).

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2012 Oct 24;
Claes L, Jiménez-Murcia S, Santamaría JJ, Moussa MB, Sánchez I, Forcano L, Magnenat-Thalmann N, Konstantas D, Overby ML, Nielsen J, Bults RG, Granero R, Lam T, Kalapanidas E, Treasure J, Fernández-Aranda F

Several aspects of social and emotional functioning are abnormal in people with eating disorders. The aim of the present study was to measure facial emotional expression in patients with eating disorders and healthy controls whilst playing a therapeutic video game (Playmancer) designed to train individuals in emotional regulation. Participants were 23 ED patients (11 AN, 12 BN) and 11 HCs. ED patients self reported more anger at baseline but expressed less facial expression of anger during the Playmancer game. The discrepancy between self-report and non-verbal expression may lead to problems in social communication. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
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Association of food form with self-reported 24-h energy intake and meal patterns in US adults: NHANES 2003-2008.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 24;
Kant AK, Graubard BI, Mattes RD

BACKGROUND: Laboratory studies suggest that food form (beverages compared with solid foods) evokes behavioral and physiologic responses that modify short-term appetite and food intake. Beverage energy may be less satiating and poorly compensated, which leads to higher energy intake. OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between 24-h energy consumed in beverages and a variety of meal and dietary attributes to quantify the contribution of beverage consumption to the energy content of diets in free-living individuals consuming their self-selected diets. DESIGN: We used dietary recall data for adults (n = 13,704) in NHANES 2003-2008 to examine the multiple covariate-adjusted associations between 24-h energy from beverages and nonbeverages and associations between beverage intake, eating behaviors, and the energy density of beverage and nonbeverage foods. RESULTS: In the highest tertile of 24-h beverage energy intake, beverages provided >30% of energy. Total 24-h energy and nonbeverage energy consumption and energy density (kcal/g) of both beverage and nonbeverage foods increased with increasing energy from beverages (P < 0.0001). With increasing 24-h beverage energy consumption, the reported frequency of all, snack, and beverage-only ingestive episodes and length of the ingestive period increased, whereas the percentage of energy from main meals decreased (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher 24-h beverage energy intake was related to higher energy intake from nonbeverage foods, quality of food selections, and distribution of 24-h energy into main meal and snack episodes. Moderation of beverage-only ingestive episodes and curtailing the length of the ingestion period may hold potential to lower uncompensated beverage energy consumption in the US population. HubMed – eating


Multidisciplinary therapy reduces risk factors for metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Eur J Pediatr. 2012 Oct 25;
Bianchini JA, da Silva DF, Nardo CC, Carolino ID, Hernandes F, Junior NN

This study aims to assess the effects of a 16-week multidisciplinary program of obesity treatment on the control of metabolic syndrome (MS) and dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Eighty-six adolescents aged 10-18 years were allocated in either the intervention group (IG; n?=?44) or control group (CG; n?=?42). IG was submitted to a multidisciplinary intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy that aimed to modify eating habits and exercise behavior. We analyzed, before and after the intervention period, anthropometric parameters, body composition, bone mineral density, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, and lipid profile of the subjects. MS was classified according to International Diabetes Federation (2007) and the presence of dyslipidemia according to Back et al. (Arq Bras Cardiol 85:4-36, 2005). In the beginning of the intervention, the median number (range) of risk factors for MS present was 2.0 (0.0-5.0) in the IG and 2.0 (0.0-4.0) in the CG. After the intervention, this parameter reduced significantly in the IG (1.0 (0.0-5.0); p?=?0.004) while no change was observed in the CG (2.0 (0.0-4.0); p?=?0.349). In addition, we observed improvements in body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, maximal oxygen uptake, absolute and relative body fat, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in the IG which was not identified in the CG. Conclusio n: We suggest that a 16-week multidisciplinary intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy was adequate to reduce risk factors for MS in obese adolescents.
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[Toxoplasma gondii: A potential role in the genesis of psychiatric disorders.]

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Encephale. 2012 Aug 21;
Fond G, Capdevielle D, Macgregor A, Attal J, Larue A, Brittner M, Ducasse D, Boulenger JP

INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii is the most common protozoan parasite in developed nations. Up to 43% of the French population may be infected, depending on eating habits and exposure to cats, and almost one third of the world human’s population may be infected. Two types of infection have been described: a congenital form and an acquired form. Although the medical profession treats these latent cases as asymptomatic and clinically unimportant, results of animal studies and recent studies of personality profiles, behavior, and psychomotor performance have led to reconsider this assumption. PRECLINICAL DATA: Among rats: parasite cysts are more abundant in amygdalar structures than those found in other regions of the brain. Infection does not influence locomotion, anxiety, hippocampal-dependent learning, fear conditioning (or its extinction) and neophobia in rats. Rats’ natural predator is the cat, which is also T. gondii’s reservoir. Naturally, rats have an aversion to cat urine, but the parasite suppresses this aversion in rats, thus influencing the infection cycle. Tachyzoites may invade different types of nervous cells, such as neurons, astrocytes and microglial cells in the brain, and Purkinje cells in cerebellum. Intracellular tachyzoites manipulate several signs for transduction mechanisms involved in apoptosis, antimicrobial effectors functions, and immune cell maturation. Dopamine levels are 14% higher in mice with chronic infections. These neurochemical changes may be factors contributing to mental and motor abnormalities that accompany or follow toxoplasmosis in rodents and possibly in humans. Moreover, the antipsychotic haloperidol and the mood stabilizer valproic acid most effectively inhibit Toxoplasma growth in vitro with synergistic activity. CLINICAL DATA: The effects of the parasite are not due to the manipulation in an evolutionary sense but merely due to neuropathological or neuroimmunological effects of the parasite’s presence. Toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia: epidemiological studies point to a role for toxoplasmosis in schizophrenia’s etiology, probably during pregnancy and early life, this association being congruent with studies in animal models indicating that animal exposures of the developing brain to infectious agents or immune modulating agents can be associated with behavioral changes that do not appear until the animal reaches full maturity. Psychiatric patients have increased rates of toxoplasmic antibodies, the differences between cases and controls being greatest in individuals who are assayed near the time of the onset of their symptoms. The increase of dopamine in the brain of infected subjects can represent the missing link between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia. Toxoplasmosis and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): the seropositivity rate for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies among OCD patients is found to be significantly higher than the rate in healthy volunteers. Infection of basal ganglia may be implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD among Toxoplasma seropositive subjects. Toxoplasmosis and personality: infected men appear to be more dogmatic, less confident, more jealous, more cautious, less impulsive and more orderly than others. Conversely, infected women seem warmest, more conscientious, more insecure, more sanctimonious and more persistent than others. It is possible that differences in the level of testosterone may be responsible for the observed behavioral differences between Toxoplasma-infected and Toxoplasma-free subjects. CONCLUSION: In the future two major avenues for research seem essential. On one hand, prospective studies and research efforts must still be carried out to understand the mechanisms by which the parasite induces these psychiatric disorders. On the other hand, it has not yet been demonstrated that patients with positive toxoplasmic serology may better respond to haloperidol’s or valproic acid’s antiparasitic activity. These results may appear as a major issue in the drug’s prescribing choices and explain variability in response to the treatment of patients with schizophrenia that is not explained by the genetic polymorphism.
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