Eating Disorders: Sleep Deprivation Amplifies Striatal Activation to Monetary Reward.

Sleep deprivation amplifies striatal activation to monetary reward.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Psychol Med. 2013 Jan 4; 1-11
Mullin BC, Phillips ML, Siegle GJ, Buysse DJ, Forbes EE, Franzen PL

BACKGROUND: Sleep loss produces abnormal increases in reward seeking but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. The present study examined the influence of one night of sleep deprivation on neural responses to a monetary reward task in a sample of late adolescents/young adults. Method Using a within-subjects crossover design, 27 healthy, right-handed late adolescents/young adults (16 females, 11 males; mean age 23.1 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following a night of sleep deprivation and following a night of normal sleep. Participants’ recent sleep history was monitored using actigraphy for 1 week prior to each sleep condition. RESULTS: Following sleep deprivation, participants exhibited increased activity in the ventral striatum (VS) and reduced deactivation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during the winning of monetary reward, relative to the same task following normal sleep conditions. Shorter total sleep time over the five nights before the sleep-deprived testing condition was associated with reduced deactivation in the mPFC during reward. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that sleep loss produces aberrant functioning in reward neural circuitry, increasing the salience of positively reinforcing stimuli. Aberrant reward functioning related to insufficient sleep may contribute to the development and maintenance of reward dysfunction-related disorders, such as compulsive gambling, eating, substance abuse and mood disorders.
HubMed – eating


Effect of harvest time of red and white clover silage on chewing activity and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces in cows.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Animal. 2013 Jan 3; 1-11
Kornfelt LF, Nørgaard P, Weisbjerg MR

The study examined the effects of harvest time of red and white clover silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in cows. The clover crops were harvested at two stages of growth and ensiled in bales. Red clover crops had 36% and 45% NDF in dry matter (DM) at early (ER) and late (LR) harvest, respectively, and the white clover crops had 19% and 29% NDF in DM at the early (EW) and late (LW) harvest, respectively. The silages were fed restrictively (80% of ad libitum intake) twice daily to four rumen cannulated non-lactating Jersey cows (588 ± 52 kg) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Jaw movements (JM) were recorded for 96 h continuously. Swallowed boli, rumen mat, rumen fluid and faeces samples were collected, washed in nylon bags (0.01 mm pore size) and freeze-dried before dry sieving through 4.750, 2.360, 1.000, 0.500, 0.212 and 0.106 mm into seven fractions. The length (PL) and width (PW) values of rumen and faeces particles within each fraction were measured by use of image analysis. The eating activity (min/kg DM intake; P < 0.05) was higher in LR compared with the other treatments. The eating activity (min/kg NDF intake; P < 0.05) was affected by clover type with highest values for white clover silage. The mean ruminating time (min/kg DM), daily ruminating cycles (P < 0.001) and JM during ruminating (P < 0.05) were affected by treatment with increasing values at later harvest time. The proportion of washed particle DM of total DM in boli (P < 0.001), rumen mat (P < 0.001), rumen fluid (P < 0.01) and faeces was (P < 0.001) highest by feeding LR. There were identified two peaks (modes 1 and 2) on the probability density distribution (PDF) of PW values of rumen mat and faeces, but only one peak (mode 1) for PL values. There was no difference in the mean and mode 1 PW and PL value in rumen mat between the four treatments. The mean PL, mode PL, mode 2 PW and mean PW in faeces were highest for LR (P < 0.05). The mean particle size in boli measured by sieving was higher at white clover compared with red clover treatments (P < 0.001) and the highest value in faeces was found in LR (P < 0.01). The two peaks on PDF for width values of rumen mat and faeces particles are most likely related to the leaves and the stems/petioles. In conclusion, the mean total chewing activity per kg DM was lowest for the white clover silage and increased for both silages due to later harvest time. The mean particle size in boli was smallest for LR, whereas the mean PL and PW in faeces were highest for the LR. HubMed – eating


Japanese multicenter estimation of wallflex duodenal stent for unresectable malignant gastric outlet obstruction.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Dig Endosc. 2013 Jan; 25(1): 1-6
Sasaki T, Isayama H, Maetani I, Nakai Y, Kogure H, Kawakubo K, Mizuno S, Yagioka H, Matsubara S, Ito Y, Yamamoto N, Sasahira N, Hirano K, Tsujino T, Toda N, Tada M, Koike K

This retrospective study estimated the efficacy and safety of the WallFlex duodenal stent for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) in Japan.Forty-two consecutive patients with symptomatic malignant GOO were treated using WallFlex duodenal stents between January 2010 and October 2010.The technical and clinical success rates were 100% and 83.3%, respectively.The median gastric outlet obstruction scoring system increased significantly, from 0 to 2, after stent placement (P?HubMed – eating



Dr. Phil: Body Obsessed Boys (Part 1) – Dr. Phil examines eating disorders among guys. –Originally aired 1/8/2009


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