Eating Disorders: Midbrain Response to Milkshake Correlates With Ad Libitum Milkshake Intake in the Absence of Hunger.

Midbrain Response to Milkshake Correlates with Ad Libitum Milkshake Intake in the Absence of Hunger.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Appetite. 2012 Oct 11;
Nolan-Poupart S, Veldhuizen MG, Geha P, Small DM

There is now widespread agreement that individual variation in the neural circuits representing the reinforcing properties of foods may be associated with risk for overeating and obesity. What is currently unknown is how and whether brain response to a food is related to immediate subsequent intake of that food. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether response to a palatable milkshake is associated with subsequent ad libitum milkshake consumption. We predicted that enhanced responses in key reward regions (insula, striatum, midbrain, medial orbitofrontal cortex) and decreased responses in regions implicated in self-control (lateral prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortex) would be associated with greater intake. We found a significant positive association between response to milkshake in the periaqueductal gray region of the midbrain and ad libitum milkshake intake. Although strong bilateral insular responses were observed during consumption of the milkshake this response did not correlate with subsequent intake. The associations observed in the midbrain and orbitofrontal cortex were uninfluenced by ratings of hunger, which were near neutral. We conclude that midbrain response to a palatable food is related to eating in the absence of hunger.
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Impact of eating rate on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors according to glucose tolerance status: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry and the Hisayama Study.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Diabetologia. 2012 Oct 13;
Ohkuma T, Fujii H, Iwase M, Kikuchi Y, Ogata S, Idewaki Y, Ide H, Doi Y, Hirakawa Y, Mukai N, Ninomiya T, Uchida K, Nakamura U, Sasaki S, Kiyohara Y, Kitazono T

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Medical nutrition therapy plays a critical role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, appropriate measures of eating behaviours, such as eating rate, have not yet been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations among eating rate, obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: A total of 7,275 Japanese individuals aged ?40 years who had normal fasting glucose levels, impaired fasting glucose or diabetes were divided into four groups according to self-reported eating rate: slow, medium, relatively fast and very fast. The associations between eating rate and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. RESULTS: The proportions of participants who were obese or who had elevated waist circumference levels increased progressively with increases in eating rate (p for trend <0.001), regardless of glucose tolerance status. These associations remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders, namely, age, sex, total energy intake, dietary fibre intake, current smoking, current drinking and regular exercise (p for trend <0.001). Blood pressure and lipid levels also tended to increase in association with eating rate. HbA(1c) rose significantly as eating rate increased, even after multivariate adjustment, including BMI, in diabetic patients on insulin therapy (p?=?0.02), whereas fasting plasma glucose did not increase significantly. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that eating rate is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors and therefore may be a modifiable risk factor in the management of cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes. HubMed – eating


Childhood obesity: know it to prevent it.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Ig Sanita Pubbl. 2012 May-Jun; 68(3): 473-82
Bozzola M, Bozzola E, Abela S, Amato S

Obesity can be defined as an excess of adipose tissue. It is associated to a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. The results of the Italian survey called Okkio alla Salute (2010), which was attended over 42’000 students of third-class of primary school and 44’000 parents, confirm bad eating habits, sedentary lifestyles and excess weight. In particular, 22,9% of the children resulted overweight and 11,1% obese. The prevalence of obesity is higher in the south of Italy than in the north and in males rather than in females. Moreover, parents do not always have a real idea of the physical aspect of their son: 36% of the mothers of overweight or obese children are do not believe their child is overweight. Just 29% of them think that the quantity of food eaten by their child is excessive. The relative risk for an obese child to become an obese adult increases with the age and is directly correlated to the severity of overweight. Among obese children of preschool age, 26 to 41% will be an obese adult., Among scholar children, the percentage increases to 69%. The paper describes a multidisciplinary approach the disease, in fact, dietary and behavioural modifications, associated with physical activity, have the purpose of educing overweight and of preventing the onset of complications or reducing their severity if already present and reversible.
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