Eating Disorders: Interactive Programme to Enhance Protective Factors for Eating Disorders in Girls With Type 1 Diabetes.

Interactive programme to enhance protective factors for eating disorders in girls with type 1 diabetes.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Early Interv Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 24;
Wilksch SM, Starkey K, Gannoni A, Kelly T, Wade TD

AIMS: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a pilot programme in enhancing protective factors for eating disorders in young girls with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Twenty girls with T1D (M age?=?11.06 years) attended two 4-h group sessions. A 4-week baseline control period was compared against changes at post-programme and at 1-month follow-up on measures of eating disorder risk factors and indicators of glycaemic control. RESULTS: At post-intervention, significant improvements were found for self-efficacy related to diabetes management, self-esteem, body-esteem,thin-ideal internalization and perfectionism. These gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up. Participants were also rated by their parents as assuming more responsibility for specific diabetes-related tasks at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: A brief interactive programme can favourably impact protective factors for disordered eating. The development of effective disordered eating prevention strategies for girls with T1D is an urgent priority and the current study is a first step in this direction.
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Gender Identity Disorder and Eating Disorders: Similarities and Differences in Terms of Body Uneasiness.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Sex Med. 2013 Jan 24;
Bandini E, Fisher AD, Castellini G, Lo Sauro C, Lelli L, Meriggiola MC, Casale H, Benni L, Ferruccio N, Faravelli C, Dettore D, Maggi M, Ricca V

INTRODUCTION.: Subjects with gender identity disorder (GID) have been reported to be highly dissatisfied with their body, and it has been suggested that the body is their primary source of suffering. AIMS.: To evaluate quality and intensity of body uneasiness in GID subjects, comparing them with a sample of eating disorder patients and a control group. To detect similarities and differences between subgroups of GID subjects, on the basis of genotypic sex and transitional stage. METHODS.: Fifty male-to-female (MtF) GID (25 without and 25 with genital reassignment surgery performed), 50 female-to-male (FtM) GID (28 without and 22 with genital reassignment surgery performed), 88 eating disorder subjects (26 anorexia nervosa, 26 bulimia nervosa, and 36 binge eating disorder), and 107 healthy subjects were evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Subjects were studied by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90), and the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). RESULTS.: GID and controls reported lower psychiatric comorbidity and lower SCL-90 General Severity Index (GSI) scores than eating disorder subjects. GID MtF without genital reassignment surgery showed the highest BUT values, whereas GID FtM without genital reassignment surgery and eating disorder subjects showed higher values compared with both GID MtF and FtM who underwent genital reassignment surgery and controls. Considering BUT subscales, a different pattern of body uneasiness was observed in GID and eating disorder subjects. GID MtF and FtM without genital reassignment surgery showed the highest BUT GSI/SCL-90 GSI ratio compared with all the eating disorder groups. CONCLUSIONS.: GID and eating disorders are characterized by a severe body uneasiness, which represents the core of distress in both conditions. Different dimensions of body uneasiness seem to be involved in GID subsamples, depending on reassignment stage and genotypic sex. In eating disorder subjects body uneasiness is primarily linked to general psychopathology, whereas in GID such a relationship is lacking.
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Risk for eating disorders modulates startle-responses to body words.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): e53667
Herbert C, Kübler A, Vögele C

Body image disturbances are core symptoms of eating disorders (EDs). Recent evidence suggests that changes in body image may occur prior to ED onset and are not restricted to in-vivo exposure (e.g. mirror image), but also evident during presentation of abstract cues such as body shape and weight-related words. In the present study startle modulation, heart rate and subjective evaluations were examined during reading of body words and neutral words in 41 student female volunteers screened for risk of EDs. The aim was to determine if responses to body words are attributable to a general negativity bias regardless of ED risk or if activated, ED relevant negative body schemas facilitate priming of defensive responses. Heart rate and word ratings differed between body words and neutral words in the whole female sample, supporting a general processing bias for body weight and shape-related concepts in young women regardless of ED risk. Startle modulation was specifically related to eating disorder symptoms, as was indicated by significant positive correlations with self-reported body dissatisfaction. These results emphasize the relevance of examining body schema representations as a function of ED risk across different levels of responding. Peripheral-physiological measures such as the startle reflex could possibly be used as predictors of females’ risk for developing EDs in the future.
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