Eating Disorders: Glycaemic Responses to Glucose and Rice in People of Chinese and European Ethnicity.

Glycaemic responses to glucose and rice in people of Chinese and European ethnicity.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Diabet Med. 2012 Nov 26;
Kataoka M, Venn BJ, Williams SM, Te Morenga LA, Heemels IM, Mann JI

AIMS: Diabetes rates are especially high in China. Risk of Type 2 diabetes increases with high intakes of white rice, a staple food of Chinese people. Ethnic differences in postprandial glycaemia have been reported. We compared glycaemic responses to glucose and five rice varieties in people of European and Chinese ethnicity and examined possible determinants of ethnic differences in postprandial glycaemia. METHODS: Self-identified Chinese (n = 32) and European (n = 31) healthy volunteers attended on eight occasions for studies following ingestion of glucose and jasmine, basmati, brown, Doongara(®) and parboiled rice. In addition to measuring glycaemic response, we investigated physical activity levels, extent of chewing of rice and salivary ?-amylase activity to determine whether these measures explained any differences in postprandial glycaemia. RESULTS: Glycaemic response, measured by incremental area under the glucose curve, was over 60% greater for the five rice varieties (P < 0.001) and 39% greater for glucose (P < 0.004) amongst Chinese compared with Europeans. The calculated glycaemic index was approximately 20% greater for rice varieties other than basmati (P = 0.01 to 0.05). Ethnicity [adjusted risk ratio 1.4 (1.2-1.8) P < 0.001] and rice variety were the only important determinants of incremental area under the glucose curve. CONCLUSIONS: Glycaemic responses following ingestion of glucose and several rice varieties are appreciably greater in Chinese compared with Europeans, suggesting the need to review recommendations regarding dietary carbohydrate amongst rice-eating populations at high risk of diabetes. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK. HubMed – eating


Distress associated with patients’ symptoms and depression in a sample of Mexican caregivers of individuals with MS.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Rehabil Psychol. 2012 Nov; 57(4): 301-7
Lehan T, Arango-Lasprilla JC, Macias MÁ, Aguayo A, Villaseñor T

Purpose/Objective: The objectives of this quantitative correlational study were to: (a) determine the frequency and level of distress associated with patients’ symptoms as reported by caregivers of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), (b) determine the prevalence of depression in these caregivers, and (c) examine the relationship between these caregivers’ total symptom distress and depression after controlling for patient, caregiver, and illness characteristics. Method/Design: In this quantitative correlational study, data from 79 caregivers of individuals with MS in Mexico were analyzed. Results: The patient symptoms with the highest average level of distress for caregivers were depression, difficulty talking, difficulty hearing, becoming upset easily, and upsetting other people. Patient symptoms with the lowest average level of distress for caregivers included difficulty learning, seizures, trouble reading, difficulty eating, and difficulty writing. Forty percent of the caregivers met the criteria for probable major depressive disorder. Results of a multivariate regression analysis showed that caregiver total symptom distress was significantly related to caregiver depression, after controlling for patient marital status, caregiver gender, caregiver relationship to patient, caregiver current employment, and months spent caregiving. Conclusions: These findings have implications for MS patients and caregivers as well as larger society, as depression in caregivers often results in the institutionalization of individuals with chronic illnesses and disabilities, which is costly for both individuals and society. In addition, there might be increased expenditures associated with the caregivers’ own declining health. For these reasons, it is important to develop a better understanding of its risk factors to identify caregivers who might benefit from intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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DASH to Wellness: Emphasizing Self-Regulation Through E-Health in Adults With Prehypertension.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Health Psychol. 2012 Nov 26;
Dorough AE, Winett RA, Anderson ES, Davy BM, Martin EC, Hedrick V

Objective: High prevalence rates of prehypertension require nonpharmaceutical lifestyle interventions. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial efficacy of a primarily electronically delivered intervention for prehypertension. Methods: Twenty-three adults with prehypertension (M age of 54.3; systolic blood pressure [BP], 126.3 mmHg; weight, 87.8 kg; body mass index, 31.5; 6514 steps/day) were randomized to DASH 2 wellness only standard of care or to DASH 2 wellness plus. Both groups received instruction on the DASH eating plan, instructions to increase steps per day and use of a weight scale and pedometer, and information about social-cognitive theory-based self-regulation strategies. D2W plus also involved home blood pressure monitoring and monitoring steps per day, nutrition, and body weight. Through weekly newsletters, participants engaged in electronic reporting and goal setting and received feedback on progress. Results: D2W plus showed a larger increase in daily steps (M = 2,900) than D2W only (M = 636); a larger decrease in systolic BP (mmHg), M = 15.1 versus M = 4.6, and a larger decrease in weight (in kg), M = 4.8 versus M = 1.5. Conclusions: Concentrating efforts not only toward adoption and initiation of innovative risk-reduction strategies but also toward the provision for long-term maintenance of a healthy lifestyle once initial changes have been accomplished is paramount. The D2W plus program could be adapted for such use in health care and other settings for treating prehypertension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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