Eating Disorders: Executive Function in Eating Disorders: The Role of State Anxiety.

Executive function in eating disorders: The role of state anxiety.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Int J Eat Disord. 2013 Jan 28;
Billingsley-Marshall RL, Basso MR, Lund BC, Hernandez ER, Johnson CL, Drevets WC, McKee PA, Yates WR

OBJECTIVE: We examined the influence of depression and anxiety on executive function in individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of anorexia nervosa-restricting type, anorexia nervosa-binge-eating/purging type, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified. METHOD: We assessed 106 women after their inpatient treatment in an eating disorders program. All participants were nutritionally stable at the time of testing. RESULTS: Thirty percent of the total sample showed impaired performance on one or more tests of executive function. No differences in executive function were observed among diagnostic groups. Anxiety scores accounted for significant variance in performance for all groups. DISCUSSION: Executive function deficits were found in a minority of our sample, with significant variance in performance accounted for by self-reported anxiety. State anxiety appears to contribute to diminished executive function in women with eating disorders. © 2013 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Providing nutritional support for patients with cancer cachexia.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Int J Palliat Nurs. 2013 Jan; 19(1): 32-7
McCreery E, Costello J

Malnutrition is the single most common secondary diagnosis for patients with advanced cancer, and can affect up to 85% of patients. Anorexia and weight loss affect up to 80% of patients and are responsible for death in up to 20% of cases. Cancer cachexia is a feature of advanced cancer characterised by anorexia and a progressive loss of body weight, reduced immune response, poor treatment response, and poor quality of life. Providing effective nutritional support for patients who experience cancer cachexia at the end of life is very challenging and requires a multidisciplinary team approach to consider the implications beyond the patient’s dietary needs being met. Evidence suggests that health professionals have limited understanding of cachexia and are often at a loss as to how to manage patients who experience this severe form of weight loss. The purpose of this article is to examine the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer who experience cachexia. The article covers the aetiology and management of the condition as well as current treatment methods and management strategies. In particular, it emphasises the advantages of the Macmillan approach to weight and eating. This approach focuses on the social aspects of eating and weight gain, indicating the importance of considering the effects of malnutrition on both the patient and the carer.
HubMed – eating


At-Home Environment, Out-of-Home Environment, Snacks and Sweetened Beverages Intake in Preadolescence, Early and Mid-Adolescence: The Interplay Between Environment and Self-Regulation.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Youth Adolesc. 2013 Jan 26;
Luszczynska A, de Wit JB, de Vet E, Januszewicz A, Liszewska N, Johnson F, Pratt M, Gaspar T, de Matos MG, Stok FM

Obesity-related behaviors, such as intake of snacks and sweetened beverages (SSB), are assumed to result from the interplay between environmental factors and adolescents’ ability to self-regulate their eating behaviors. The empirical evidence supporting this assumption is missing. This study investigated the relationships between perceptions of at-home and out-of-home food environment (including SSB accessibility, parental, and peers’ social pressure to reduce intake of SSB), nutrition self-regulatory strategies (controlling temptations and suppression), and SSB intake. In particular, we hypothesized that these associations would differ across the stages of preadolescence, early and mid-adolescence. Self-reported data were collected from 2,764 adolescents (10-17 years old; 49 % girls) from 24 schools in the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. Path analysis indicated that direct associations between peers’ social influence and SSB intake increased with age. Direct negative associations between at-home and out-of-home accessibility and SSB intake as well as direct positive associations between parental pressure and intake become significantly weaker with age. Accessibility was related negatively to self-regulation, whereas higher social pressure was associated with higher self-regulation. The effects of the environmental factors were mediated by self-regulation. Quantitative and qualitative differences in self-regulation were observed across the stages of adolescence. The associations between the use of self-regulatory strategies and lower SSB intake become significantly stronger with age. In preadolescence, SSB intake was regulated by means of strategies that aimed at direct actions toward tempting food. In contrast, early and mid-adolescents controlled their SSB intake by means of a combination of self-regulatory strategies focusing on direct actions toward tempting food and strategies focusing on changing the psychological meaning of tempting food.
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Design of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of a Diabetes Prevention Program within African-American Churches: The Fit Body and Soul Study.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Contemp Clin Trials. 2013 Jan 24;
Williams LB, Sattin RW, Dias J, Garvin JT, Marion L, Joshua T, Kriska A, Kramer MK, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Freeman A, Narayan KM

Evidence from varied community settings has shown that the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) Program and other adaptations of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention are effective in lowering diabetes risk. Most DPP data originated from studies of pre-diabetic whites, with only sparse evidence of the effect of DPP in African Americans (AAs) in community settings. This paper describes the design, methods, baseline characteristics and cost effective measures, of a single-blinded, cluster- randomized trial of a faith-based adaptation of the GLB program, Fit Body and Soul (FBAS). The major aims are to test efficacy and cost utility of FBAS in twenty AA churches. Randomization occurred at the church level and 604 AA overweight/obese (BMI?25kg/m(2)) adults with fasting plasma glucose range from normal to pre-diabetic received either FBAS or a health-education comparison program. FBAS is a group-based, multi-level intervention delivered by trained church health advisors (health professionals from within the church), with the goal of ?7% weight loss, achieved through increasing physical activity, healthy eating and behavior modification. The primary outcome is weight change at 12-weeks post intervention. Secondary outcomes include hemoglobin A1C, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, physical activity level, quality of life measures, and cost-effectiveness. FBAS is the largest known cohort of AAs enrolled in a faith-based DPP translation. Reliance on health professionals from within the church for program implementation and the cost analysis are unique aspects of this trial. The design provides a model for faith-based DPPs and holds promise for program sustainability and widespread dissemination.
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Littlest Pet Shop: Popular (Episode #11: Revenge Isn’t Always Sweet) – Although she may not want to admit it, Brooke Hayes’ status as queen bee of the Orange County Day Academy is no longer set in stone. She’s finally come to terms with the fact that Savannah Reed is quickly becoming the new It Girl of the school. Wherever Savannah goes, whispers follow — and so does an eager throng of girls desperate to be like her. Brooke devises a plan during an emergency Barbie Doll meeting with the purpose of reinventing themselves and reinforcing their position at the top of the social ladder. However, when the plan is put into motion, things don’t exactly go as expected. Meanwhile, Savannah’s newfound popularity is getting to her head… and causing her to act very differently. In the heat of the moment, she makes a pivotal choice to save her dignity, but at what cost does this choice come? Is the outcome of her choice truly what she wanted? Either way, both Brooke and Savannah are learning that revenge isn’t always sweet. **My apologies for the 30 seconds of black at the end, that was a mistake** VERY IMPORTANT WARNING: The Popular series is rated PG. Although these videos are made with Littlest Pet Shop toys, the Popular series is NOT meant for very young children and is geared more towards preteens. This story is set in a high school and thus explores themes that are definitely more mature (but not too mature, don’t worry), the most prevalent being teenage romance and eating disorders. Although the theme of eating disorders is dominant in my story


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