Eating Disorders: Evidence of Brown Fat Activity in Constitutional Leanness.

Evidence of Brown Fat Activity in Constitutional Leanness.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Feb 7;
Pasanisi F, Pace L, Fonti R, Marra M, Sgambati D, De Caprio C, De Filippo E, Vaccaro A, Salvatore M, Contaldo F

Background:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) was considered essentially nonexistent in adults until recent evidence obtained using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography. It seems to play a role in whole body metabolism, but it has not been evaluated in underweight conditions, such as in young females with constitutional leanness (CL) or anorexia nervosa (AN).Subjects and Methods:Thirty-eight subjects were evaluated from October 2011 to March 2012 : 7 CL (21.7 ± 3.6 y, body mass index [BMI] 16.2 ± 1.0 kg/m(2)), 7 AN (23.4 ± 4.5 y, BMI 15.5 ± 0.8), 3 of the 7 AN after stable refeeding (R-AN, 21.3 ± 1.5 y, BMI 18.8 ± 1.1), and 24 normal weight (NW) women (25.6 ± 3.9 y, BMI 22.2 ± 1.5). Fasting resting metabolic rate and respiratory quotient were measured by indirect calorimetry, body composition by bioimpedentiometry (only in CL, AN, and refed AN), and BAT activity by 18-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan, all in standardized conditions.Results:All CL (100%), none of the AN and refed AN (0%), and 3 of the 24 NW (12%) subjects showed FDG uptake. Average FDG maximum standardized uptake value was 11.4 + 6.7 g/mL in CL and 5.5 ± 1.2 g/mL (min 3.7, max 8.3) in the 3 NW subjects. In CL, the maximum standardized uptake value was directly correlated to resting metabolic rate, corrected for fat-free mass, and inversely correlated with respiratory quotient.Conclusion:BAT activity has been shown in CL in resting thermoneutral conditions and may exert a role against adipose tissue deposition.
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Relationship among self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in korean college students.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013; 776: 259-65
Park SY, You JS, Chang KJ

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among -self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students. The subjects were 239 college students (142 male and 97 female) residing in the Incheon, Korea. Self-reported fatigue score was determined using a questionnaire of “Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue Test.” The average physical fatigue score (p ;< ;0.001), mental fatigue score (p ;< ;0.01), nervous fatigue score (p ;< ;0.001), and total fatigue score (p ;< ;0.001) of female students were significantly higher compared to male students. Average dietary taurine intake in male and female was 102.5 mg/day and 98.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant correlation between self-reported fatigue score and dietary taurine intake. However, there was significantly negative correlation between self-reported fatigue scores and dietary habits such as "eating meals at regular times" (p ;< ;0.05), "eating foods such as meat, fish, eggs, and beans more than two times a day" (p ;< ;0.05), "eating greenish yellow vegetable every meal" (p ;< ;0.05), and "avoiding eating sweet foods everyday" (p ;< ;0.05). Therefore, in order to reduce self-reported fatigue, it is necessary to provide nutrition education and counseling for better dietary habit in Korean college students, and a further large-scale study is needed about relationship of self-reported fatigue and dietary taurine intake. HubMed – eating


Promoting obesity prevention together with environmental sustainability.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Health Promot Int. 2013 Feb 7;
Skouteris H, Cox R, Huang T, Rutherford L, Edwards S, Cutter-Mackenzie A

There is mounting evidence that current food production, transport, land use and urban design negatively impact both climate change and obesity outcomes. Recommendations to prevent climate change provide an opportunity to improve environmental outcomes and alter our food and physical activity environments in favour of a ‘healthier’ energy balance. Hence, setting goals to achieve a more sustainable society offers a unique opportunity to reduce levels of obesity. In the case of children, this approach is supported with evidence that even from a young age they show emerging understandings of complex environmental issues and are capable of both internalizing positive environmental values and influencing their own environmental outcomes. Given young children’s high levels of environmental awareness, it is easy to see how environmental sustainability messages may help educate and motivate children to make ‘healthier’ choices. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a new approach to tackling childhood obesity by tapping into existing social movements, such as environmental sustainability, in order to increase children’s motivation for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours and thus foster more wholesome communities. We contend that a social marketing framework may be a particularly useful tool to foster behaviour change beneficial to both personal and environmental health by increasing perceived benefits and reducing perceived costs of behaviour change. Consequently, we propose a new framework which highlights suggested pathways for helping children initiate and sustain ‘healthier’ behaviours in order to inform future research and potentially childhood obesity intervention strategies.
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Body mass index in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients in relation to age, time point and site of admission.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Feb 8;
Bühren K, von Ribbeck L, Schwarte R, Egberts K, Pfeiffer E, Fleischhaker C, Wewetzer C, Kennes LN, Dempfle A, Herpertz-Dahlmann B

Body mass index (BMI) at admission is an important predictor of outcome in adolescent eating disorders. However, few studies have investigated BMI at admission, its changes in recent years, or modifying factors, such as duration of illness and age at onset in different geographical regions. Thus, this study aimed to investigate changes in BMI at admission over the past decade in one clinic, the differences in BMI between various treatment sites and the influence of duration of illness before admission and age at admission. Our sample consisted of 158 adolescent female patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) admitted between 2001 and 2009 to a major university hospital and 169 adolescent female patients recruited in a multicenter study between 2007 and 2010. We assessed the differences between departments in different regions of Germany in the multi-site sample. Changes over time in age-adjusted BMI and age at admission as well as modifying factors for age-adjusted BMI at admission, such as age at admission and duration of illness, were assessed in a representative local sample. There were no significant differences between departments in different regions of Germany. Over the course of the local study, there was a small but significant increase in the age-adjusted BMI score and absolute BMI at admission. In addition, there was a positive association between year of admission and age at admission. Older adolescents with AN had a lower age-adjusted BMI score and a longer duration of illness at the time of admission. The BMI at admission, which is one of the most important predictors of outcome in AN, has increased slightly during the past 10 years. Education strategies for parents and professionals should continue to be improved to further shorten the duration of illness before admission, especially for older adolescents.
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