Eating Disorders: Endogenous Opiates and Behavior: 2011.

Endogenous Opiates and Behavior: 2011.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Peptides. 2012 Oct 3;
Bodnar RJ

This paper is the thirty-fourth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2011 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17).
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Do transition towns have the potential to promote health and well-being? A health impact assessment of a transition town initiative.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Public Health. 2012 Oct 2;
Richardson J, Nichols A, Henry T

OBJECTIVES: Climate change and energy vulnerability present significant challenges for the development and sustainability of our communities. The adverse effects will most likely impact on those already experiencing poverty, as energy and food costs will rise, thus increasing inequalities in health. Transition town initiatives seek to build cohesive sustainable communities to prepare for a future with limited oil and a changing climate. Increasingly, public health practitioners are interested in the role of transition towns as a community development initiative, and their potential to support the wider public health agenda. Health impact assessment (HIA) is an evidence-based process that aims to predict the positive and negative impacts of a strategy, proposal or development. The HIA process provides an opportunity to promote sustainable communities by ensuring that new strategies and developments are considered in the context of their contribution to the health and well-being of local populations. The aim of this study was to use an HIA to examine the potential health and well-being benefits of two related transition town initiatives. STUDY DESIGN: A rapid HIA to consider the potential lifestyle changes and health and well-being impacts of Transition Together/Transition Streets (TT/TS) projects. METHODS: An HIA template was used to assess key documents related to the TT/TS initiatives and those related to the characteristics of the community. Additionally, meetings with 12 key informants (four involved in TT/TS and eight purposively selected for their local knowledge) were held using the HIA template to focus the discussion. RESULTS: The findings highlight the associated lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity and healthy eating, and possible social and well-being benefits of engagement in such an initiative. Engagement may be limited to those already concerned about environmental issues. CONCLUSION: This paper illustrates the important links between transition towns and the wider public health agenda, and demonstrates how an HIA can be applied to a community-based initiative. It provides a means by which transition town initiatives can demonstrate health and well-being benefits, whilst raising concerns about inclusivity and equity.
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Psychopharmacologic treatment of obesity and eating disorders in children and adolescents.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2012 Oct; 21(4): 831-59
Powers PS, Cloak NL

This review discusses the evidence base for medications that are currently used for obesity and eating disorders, including their Food and Drug Administration approval status by disorder and age group, contraindications, and major adverse effects. Investigational agents currently being considered, issues related to psychiatric and medical comorbidity, limitations of pharmacologic strategies, and recommendations for treatment are also addressed.
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Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Dairy Sci. 2012 Oct 3;
Litherland NB, Weich WD, Hansen WP, Linn JG

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed

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prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2 × 2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum ?-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5 d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum eating time and eating bouts tended to be greater by WS than for OG, and postpartum eating time per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber intake tended to be greater for WS than for OG. Results indicate that forage source and amount of DM fed prepartum affected postpartum performance and tended to alter the behavior of cows in tie-stall barns.
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