Eating Disorders: Differences in Intestinal Microbial Metabolites in Laying Hens With High and Low Levels of Repetitive Feather-Pecking Behavior.

Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Physiol Behav. 2013 Jan 8;
Meyer B, Zentek J, Harlander-Matauschek A

Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens were examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P < 0.001, and P = 0.012). In the cecum the amounts of L-lactate, D-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P = 0.007, P = 0.005, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P = 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P < 0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P < 0.001, and P = 0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P < 0.001, and P = 0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research into implications of gut bacteria, their metabolites and the polyamine system on brain and behavior in laying hens. HubMed – eating


Dysfunctions of leptin, ghrelin, BDNF and endocannabinoids in eating disorders: Beyond the homeostatic control of food intake.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 Jan 10;
Monteleone P, Maj M

A large body of literature documents the occurrence of alterations in the physiology of both central and peripheral modulators of appetite in acute patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Until more recently the role of most of the appetite modulators in the control of eating behavior was conceptualized solely in terms of their influence on homeostatic control of energy balance. However, it is becoming more and more evident that appetite modulators also affect the non-homeostatic cognitive, emotional and rewarding component of food intake as well as non food-related reward, and, recently, AN and BN have been pathophysiologically linked to dysfunctions of reward mechanisms. Therefore, the possibility exists that observed changes in appetite modulators in acute AN and BN may represent not only homeostatic adaptations to malnutrition, but also contribute to the development and/or the maintenance of aberrant non-homeostatic behaviors, such as self-starvation and binge eating. In the present review, the evidences supporting a role of leptin, ghrelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and endocannabinoids in the homeostatic and non-homeostatic dysregulations of patients with AN and BN will be presented. The reviewed literature is highly suggestive that changes in the physiology of these modulators may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of eating disorders by providing a possible link between motivated behaviors, reward processes, cognitive functions and energy balance.
HubMed – eating


Breakfast eating pattern and its association with dietary quality indices and anthropometric measurements in young women in Isfahan.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Nutrition. 2013 Feb; 29(2): 420-5
Azadbakht L, Haghighatdoost F, Feizi A, Esmaillzadeh A

To assess the association between consuming or skipping breakfast and dietary quality indices such as the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), diversity scores of different food groups, and anthropometric measurements in young Isfahanian women.Women 18 to 28 y old were selected randomly from among university students (n = 411) in Isfahan, Iran. A validated semiquantitative questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Five food groups of the Food Guide Pyramid were considered for calculating the DDS and diversity score of the food groups. Subjects were categorized based on consuming or skipping breakfast. The HEI was calculated based on 10 components including the five food groups, different fat and sodium intakes, and the DDS.Breakfast consumers versus skippers had higher scores for the HEI (66 ± 13 versus 47 ± 13, P = 0.001), the DDS (6.8 ± 1.2 versus 4.9 ± 0.7, P = 0.001), and the DDSs for fruits (1.3 ± 0.2 versus 0.9 ± 0.1, P = 0.001), vegetables (1.6 ± 0.2 versus 1.2 ± 0.1, P = 0.001), and whole grains (1.3 ± 0.2 versus 0.9 ± 0.1, P = 0.001). Also, eating breakfast was associated with lower values for dietary energy density (0.96 ± 0.25 versus 1.04 ± 0.40, P = 0.01), the body mass index (20.0 ± 1.8 versus 23.3 ± 2.7, P = 0.001), and waist circumference (69.2 ± 7.6 versus 72.5 ± 8.7, P = 0.001). There was a higher prevalence of breakfast consumers in the third tertiles of the HEI and DDS. However, there was a smaller percentage of breakfast consumers in the third tertiles of the body mass index and waist circumference.Breakfast consumption was associated with higher scores of the dietary quality indices and lower values for the body mass index and waist circumference in young Isfahanian women. Further studies should be performed to determine the relation between the kind of breakfast consumed and the dietary quality indices.
HubMed – eating


Test for screening olfactory function in children.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013 Jan 9;
D?aman K, Zielnik-Jurkiewicz B, Jurkiewicz D, Moli?ska-Glura M

OBJECTIVE: The research determining odors recognizable by children from Poland and Eastern Europe has not been widely described in the literature. The aim of the study was to determine the odors recognizable by Polish children which could be used in a screening olfactory test. METHODS: The study was performed in Children’s Hospital in Warsaw. Ninety-one children aged from 2.9 years to 10 years (SD=5.6 years) were examined, 85 (93.4%) of which completed a full olfactory test. Children were separated into three age groups. The olfactory test consisted of 21 odors. RESULTS: The analysis of the results of all children’s examinations showed statistically significant influence of age on the number of odors identified (p=0.0001; r=0.676). The olfactory test score enabled identification of 6 odors to be included in the screening test: bubble gum, lemon, cola, mint, toffee, fish. Correct identification of at least 4 out of them was accepted as a norm and was achieved by 96.5% of children. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory evaluation is possible for children as young as 3 years old. Child’s age influences the number of odors recognized and the specific odors recognition depends also on the home place geographic location and eating habits. Eastern European children most often recognized the following odors: bubble gum, lemon, cola, mint, toffee and fish, as so these odors were considered for olfactory screening test. The 6 odors test has good ability to generalize performance to olfactory status, has normative data and good validity and reliability, is fast, easy and inexpensive to administer.
HubMed – eating


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