Eating Disorders: An Examination of Food Addiction in a Racially Diverse Sample of Obese Patients With Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care Settings.

An examination of food addiction in a racially diverse sample of obese patients with binge eating disorder in primary care settings.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 14;
Gearhardt AN, White MA, Masheb RM, Grilo CM

OBJECTIVE: The concept of food addiction in obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) continues to be a hotly debated topic yet the empirical evidence on the relationship between addictive-like eating and clinically relevant eating disorders is limited. The current study examined the association of food addiction as assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) with measures of disordered eating, dieting/weight history, and related psychopathology in a racially diverse sample of obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). METHOD: A consecutive series of 96 obese patients with BED who were seeking treatment for obesity and binge eating in primary care were given structured interviews to assess psychiatric disorders and eating disorder psychopathology and a battery of self-report measures including the YFAS to assess food addiction. RESULTS: Classification of food addiction was met by 41.5% (n=39) of BED patients. Patients classified as meeting YFAS food addiction criteria had significantly higher levels of negative affect, emotion dysregulation, and eating disorder psychopathology, and lower self-esteem. Higher scores on the YFAS were related to an earlier age of first being overweight and dieting onset. YFAS scores were also significant predictors of binge eating frequency above and beyond other measures. DISCUSSION: Compared to patients not classified as having food addiction, the subset of 41.5% of BED patients who met the YFAS food addiction cut-off appears to have a more severe presentation of BED and more associated pathology.
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Fasting in mood disorders: neurobiology and effectiveness. A review of the literature.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Psychiatry Res. 2013 Jan 14;
Fond G, Macgregor A, Leboyer M, Michalsen A

Clinicians have found that fasting was frequently accompanied by an increased level of vigilance and a mood improvement, a subjective feeling of wellbeing, and sometimes of euphoria. Therapeutic fasting, following an established protocol, is safe and well tolerated. We aim in this article to explore the biological mechanisms activated during fasting that could have an effect on brain function with particular focus on mood (we do not discuss here the mechanisms regulating eating behavior) and to provide a comprehensive review on the potential positive impact of therapeutic fasting on mood. We explored Medline, Web of Science and PsycInfo according to the PRISMA criteria (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis). The initial research paradigm was: [(fasting OR caloric restriction) AND (mental health OR depressive disorders OR mood OR anxiety)]. Many neurobiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain fasting effects on mood, such as changes in neurotransmitters, quality of sleep, synthesis of neurotrophic factors. Many clinical observations relate an early (between day 2 and day 7) effect of fasting on depressive symptoms with an improvement in mood, alertness and a sense of tranquility reported by patients. The persistence of mood improvement over time remains to be determined.
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Eating disorder treatment among women forty and older: Increases in prevalence over time and comparisons to young adult patients.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Psychosom Res. 2013 Feb; 74(2): 175-8
Ackard DM, Richter S, Frisch MJ, Mangham D, Cronemeyer CL

There is limited information on the prevalence of middle-aged women seeking specialized treatment for an eating disorder and whether middle-aged patients are significantly different from young-adult patients. This two-part study sought to identify changes in the past two decades in the prevalence of middle-aged (MA; 40+ years) and young-adult (YA; 18-39years) women seeking treatment for an eating disorder (ED) and to identify differences and similarities between both groups.For Study 1, all unique female inpatient admissions from 1989 to 2006 were reviewed (n=1,040). For Study 2, women admitted to any treatment level from January-May 2007 were compared, based on age at intake admission, on psychological questionnaires and factors relevant to an eating disorder.In Study 1, the overall percent of MA women who presented for inpatient ED treatment increased significantly from an average of 4.7% (1989-2001) to an average of 11.6% (2002-2006). In Study 2, at intake, MA women were more likely than YA to be married, be older at ED onset and report a longer duration of illness. Self-esteem, depression, anxiety, ED psychopathology, and BMI were not significantly different between groups.Findings indicate an increase in the prevalence of inpatient admissions among middle-aged women, but few differences between middle-aged and younger-aged women at treatment admission. However, the longer duration of illness among MA warrants in-depth investigation of factors related to resistance to seeking treatment and to existing treatments failing patients, and consideration of tailoring treatment to course of illness.
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Changes in the frequency of family meals from 1999 to 2010 in the homes of adolescents: trends by sociodemographic characteristics.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Adolesc Health. 2013 Feb; 52(2): 201-6
Neumark-Sztainer D, Wall M, Fulkerson JA, Larson N

To examine secular trends from 1999 to 2010 in family meal frequency in a population-based sample of adolescents across sociodemographic characteristics.A repeated cross-sectional design was used. Participants were from middle schools and high schools in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area and included 3,072 adolescents (mean age = 14.6 ± 1.8 years) in 1999 and 2,793 adolescents (mean age = 14.4 ± 2.0 years) in 2010 from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Trends in family meal frequency were examined using inverse probability weighting to control for changes in sociodemographic characteristics over time.Family meal frequency remained fairly constant from 1999 to 2010 in the overall sample, but decreases were found in population subgroups including girls, middle school students (grade: 6-8), Asians, and youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Among youth from the lowest socioeconomic backgrounds, the mean number of family meals in the past week decreased from 4.0 in 1999 to 3.6 in 2010 (p = .003). Furthermore, the percentage of youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds eating five or more meals in the past week decreased from 46.9% in 1999 to 38.8% in 2010 (p < .001). In contrast, family meal frequency tended to increase over time among youth from higher socioeconomic backgrounds.The widening gap in family meal frequency between youth from low and high socioeconomic backgrounds is concerning, particularly given the greater risk for poor health outcomes among low-income youth. Given findings from other studies suggesting multiple benefits of family meals, interventions to increase family meal frequency are needed that target adolescents and their families from the most vulnerable segments of the population. HubMed – eating


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