Eating Carbohydrate Mostly at Lunch and Protein Mostly at Dinner Within a Covert Hypocaloric Diet Influences Morning Glucose Homeostasis in Overweight/obese Men.

Eating carbohydrate mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner within a covert hypocaloric diet influences morning glucose homeostasis in overweight/obese men.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Eur J Nutr. 2013 Feb 7;
Alves RD, de Oliveira FC, Hermsdorff HH, Abete I, Zulet MA, Martínez JA, Bressan J

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of two dietary patterns in which carbohydrates and proteins were eaten mostly at lunch or dinner on body weight and composition, energy metabolism, and biochemical markers in overweight/obese men. METHODS: Fifty-eight men (30.0 ± 7.4 years; 30.8 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) followed a covert hypocaloric balanced diet (-10 % of daily energy requirements) during 8 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: control diet (CT); diurnal carbohydrate/nocturnal protein (DCNP); and nocturnal carbohydrate/diurnal protein (NCDP). Main analyzed outcomes were weight loss, body composition, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and glucose/lipid profile. RESULTS: In all groups, a significant decrease in body weight, BMI, and fat mass (kg and %) was verified, without differences between groups. Interestingly, within group analyses showed that the fat-free mass (kg) significantly decreased in NCDP and in CT after 8-week intervention, but not in DCNP. A detrimental increase in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) was verified only in DCNP, while NCDP and CT groups presented a non-significant reduction. Moreover, significant differences between DCNP and the other groups were detected for fasting insulin and HOMA(IR). After the adjustments, NCDP presented a significantly higher DIT and energy expenditure after lunch, compared with DCNP, but after dinner, there were no differences among groups. CONCLUSION: Eating carbohydrates mostly at dinner and protein mostly at lunch within a hypocaloric balanced diet had similar effect on body composition and biochemical markers, but higher effect on DIT compared with control diet. Moreover, eating carbohydrates mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner had a deleterious impact on glucose homeostasis.
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Changing automatic behavior through self-monitoring: Does overt change also imply implicit change?

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 11; 44(3): 279-284
Maas J, Hietbrink L, Rinck M, Keijsers GP

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Self-monitoring of unwanted behavior is a common component of effective cognitive-behavioral therapy. Self-monitoring has often shown to lead to decreases in undesirable behavior. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of these ‘reactive effects’, we investigated whether behavioral changes as a result of self-monitoring were accompanied by changes in explicit and implicit evaluation. For this purpose, monitoring of snack-eating was compared to monitoring of alcohol-drinking, since reactive effects are found absent in alcohol-drinking. METHODS: Implicit evaluations (Affective Priming Task), estimated frequency and satisfaction of consumption (Snacks and Drinks Questionnaire) were assessed before and after a 15-day self-monitoring period. Consumption was measured using self-monitoring forms. Participants were randomly assigned to a group that either monitored snack-eating behavior (experimental group) or to a group that monitored alcohol-drinking behavior (control group). RESULTS: After self-monitoring, consumption only decreased in the experimental group, although both groups estimated their snack-eating frequency to be higher after self-monitoring. Explicit satisfaction of the habit remained the same but self-monitoring did result in a slightly more implicit negative evaluation of the monitored substance in both groups. In both groups, participants were less satisfied with their snack-eating behavior than with their alcohol-drinking behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Self-monitoring reduced snack-eating but not alcohol-drinking. In both groups, self-monitoring appeared to be accompanied by small implicit, but not explicit changes in evaluation. Changes in evaluation apparently do not lead to actual behavioral change on their own. Other factors are expected to be involved as well, such as dissatisfaction at the start of monitoring.
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Barriers and facilitators of consumer use of nutrition labels at sit-down restaurant chains.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Public Health Nutr. 2013 Feb 6; 1-8
Auchincloss AH, Young C, Davis AL, Wasson S, Chilton M, Karamanian V

OBJECTIVE: Numerous localities have mandated that chain restaurants post nutrition information at the point of purchase. However, some studies suggest that consumers are not highly responsive to menu labelling. The present qualitative study explored influences on full-service restaurant customers’ noticing and using menu labelling. DESIGN: Five focus groups were conducted with thirty-six consumers. A semi-structured script elicited barriers and facilitators to using nutrition information by showing excerpts of real menus from full-service chain restaurants. SETTING: Participants were recruited from a full-service restaurant chain in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, in September 2011. SUBJECTS: Focus group participants were mostly female, African American, with incomes <$ US 60 000, mean age 36 years and education 14·5 years. At recruitment, 33 % (n 12) reported changing their order after seeing nutrition information on the menu. RESULTS: Three themes characterized influences on label use in restaurants: nutrition knowledge, menu design and display, and normative attitudes and behaviours. Barriers to using labels were low prior knowledge of nutrition; displaying nutrition information using codes; low expectations of the nutritional quality of restaurant food; and restaurant discounts, promotions and social influences that overwhelmed interest in nutrition and reinforced disinterest in nutrition. Facilitators were higher prior knowledge of recommended daily intake; spending time reading the menu; having strong prior interest in nutrition/healthy eating; and being with people who reinforced dietary priorities. CONCLUSIONS: Menu labelling use may increase if consumers learn a few key recommended dietary reference values, understand basic energy intake/expenditure scenarios and if chain restaurants present nutrition information in a user-friendly way and promote healthier items. HubMed – eating


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