Early Versus Delayed Mobilisation for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage.

Early versus delayed mobilisation for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 5: CD008346
Ma Z, Wang Q, Liu M

BACKGROUND: Rebleeding is an important cause of death and disability in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). In order to prevent rebleeding, the preferred strategy is aneurysm ablation (removal) as early as possible. However, in clinical practice some patients are not suitable for surgical treatment, or prefer conservative treatments. In some countries, therefore, total bedrest for four to six weeks has been considered one of the basic interventions to avoid rebleeding. However, the influence of bedrest on outcome in patients with SAH is not well known. OBJECTIVES: To establish whether early mobilisation (less than four weeks after symptom onset) compared with delayed mobilisation (defined as patients staying in bed for at least four weeks after symptom onset) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), who have not had or could not have any surgical treatment for the aneurysm, will increase the proportion of deaths from rebleeding. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (May 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), the Chinese Stroke Trials Register (May 2012), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2012), EMBASE (1980 to June 2012), Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to May 2012), CINAHL (1982 to June 2012), AMED (1985 to June 2012), PEDro (May 2012), REHABDATA (May 2012) and CIRRIE Database of International Rehabilitation Research (May 2012). In addition, we searched five Chinese databases, ongoing trials registers and relevant reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing early mobilisation (within four weeks after symptom onset) with delayed mobilisation (after four weeks). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion and exclusion. We resolved disagreements by discussion. MAIN RESULTS: In the absence of any suitable RCTs addressing this topic, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Data from recent observational studies suggested the period of greatest risk for rebleeding occurs more frequently in the early period, especially within 24 hours of the initial SAH. The impact of bedrest on aneurysm care should be clarified. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: There are no RCTs or controlled trials that provide evidence for, or against, staying in bed for at least four weeks after symptom onset in patients with aneurysmal SAH, who have not had, or could not have, surgical treatment for the aneurysm. Treatment strategies to reduce the risk of rebleeding in SAH patients before aneurysm ablation, or in those not suitable for surgical treatment, or who prefer conservative treatments, deserve attention. HubMed – rehab


Therapeutic exercise for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 5: CD005229
Dal Bello-Haas V, Florence JM

BACKGROUND: Despite the high incidence of muscle weakness in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease (MND), the effects of exercise in this population are not well understood. This is an update of a review first published in 2008. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review randomised and quasi-randomised studies of exercise for people with ALS or MND. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (2 July 2012), CENTRAL (2012, Issue 6 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2012), AMED (January 1985 to June 2012), CINAHL Plus (January 1938 to June 2012), LILACS (January 1982 to June 2012), Ovid HealthSTAR (January 1975 to December 2012). We also searched ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I (2007 to 2012), inspected the reference lists of all papers selected for review and contacted authors with expertise in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of people with a diagnosis of definite, probable, probable with laboratory support, or possible ALS, as defined by the El Escorial criteria. We included progressive resistance or strengthening exercise, and endurance or aerobic exercise. The control condition was no exercise or standard rehabilitation management. Our primary outcome measure was improvement in functional ability, decrease in disability or reduction in rate of decline as measured by a validated outcome tool at three months. Our secondary outcome measures were improvement in psychological status or quality of life, decrease in fatigue, increase in, or reduction in rate of decline of muscle strength (strengthening or resistance studies), increase in, or reduction in rate of decline of aerobic endurance (aerobic or endurance studies) at three months and frequency of adverse effects. We did not exclude studies on the basis of measurement of outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. We collected adverse event data from included trials. The review authors contacted the authors of the included studies to obtain information not available in the published articles. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two randomised controlled trials that met our inclusion criteria, and we found no new trials when we updated the searches in 2012. The first, a study with overall unclear risk of bias, examined the effects of a twice-daily exercise program of moderate load endurance exercise versus “usual activities” in 25 people with ALS. The second, a study with overall low risk of bias, examined the effects of thrice weekly moderate load and moderate intensity resistance exercises compared to usual care (stretching exercises) in 27 people with ALS. After three months, when the results of the two trials were combined (43 participants), there was a significant mean improvement in the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS) measure of function in favour of the exercise groups (mean difference 3.21, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 5.96). No statistically significant differences in quality of life, fatigue or muscle strength were found. In both trials adverse effects, investigators reported no adverse effects such as increased muscle cramping, muscle soreness or fatigue AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: The included studies were too small to determine to what extent strengthening exercises for people with ALS are beneficial, or whether exercise is harmful. There is a complete lack of randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials examining aerobic exercise in this population. More research is needed. HubMed – rehab


Cognitive rehabilitation for attention deficits following stroke.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 5: CD002842
Loetscher T, Lincoln NB

BACKGROUND: Many survivors of stroke complain about attentional impairments, such as diminished concentration and mental slowness. However, the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for improving these impairments is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether (1) people receiving attentional treatment show better outcomes in their attentional functions than those given no treatment or treatment as usual, and (2) people receiving attentional treatment techniques have a better functional recovery, in terms of independence in activities of daily living, mood and quality of life, than those given no treatment or treatment as usual. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (October 2012), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library October 2012), MEDLINE (1948 to October 2012), EMBASE (1947 to October 2012), CINAHL (1981 to October 2012), PsycINFO (1806 to October 2012), PsycBITE and REHABDATA (searched October 2012) and ongoing trials registers. We screened reference lists and tracked citations using Scopus. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive rehabilitation for impairments of attention for people with stroke. The primary outcome was measures of global attentional functions, and secondary outcomes were measures of attention domains, functional abilities, mood and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data and assessed trial quality. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs with 223 participants. All six RCTs compared cognitive rehabilitation with a usual care control. Meta-analyses demonstrated no statistically significant effect of cognitive rehabilitation for persisting effects on global measures of attention (two studies, 99 participants; standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23 to 0.56; P value = 0.41), standardised attention assessments (two studies, 99 participants; P value ? 0.08) or functional outcomes (two studies, 99 participants; P value ? 0.15). In contrast, a statistically significant effect was found in favour of cognitive rehabilitation when compared with control for immediate effects on measures of divided attention (four studies, 165 participants; SMD 0.67, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.98; P value < 0.0001) but no significant effects on global attention (two studies, 53 participants; P value = 0.06), other attentional domains (six studies, 223 participants; P value ? 0.16) or functional outcomes (three studies, 109 participants; P value ? 0.21).Thus there was limited evidence that cognitive rehabilitation may improve some aspects of attention in the short term, but there was insufficient evidence to support or refute the persisting effects of cognitive rehabilitation on attention, or on functional outcomes in either the short or long term. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation remains unconfirmed. The results suggest there may be a short-term effect on attentional abilities, but future studies need to assess the persisting effects and measure attentional skills in daily life. Trials also need to have higher methodological quality and better reporting. HubMed – rehab


Gait analysis in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

J Appl Biomater Funct Mater. 2013 May 31; 0
Cimolin V, Galli M, Vismara L, Vimercati SL, Precilios H, Cattani L, Fabris De Souza S, Petroni ML, Capodaglio P

Purpose: Anorexia (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) are two common eating disorders, which appear to share some reduced motor capacities, such as a reduced balance. The presence and the extent of other motor disorders have not been investigated in a comprehensive way. The aim of this study was to quantify gait pattern in AN and BN individuals in order to ascertain possible differences from the normality range and provide novel data for developing some evidence-based rehabilitation strategies.Methods: Nineteen AN patients (age 30.16+9.73) and 20 BN patients (age 26.8+8.41) were assessed with quantitative 3D computerized Gait Analysis. Results were compared with a group of healthy controls (CG; 30.7+5.6).Results: AN and BN patients were characterized by different gait strategies compared to CG. Spatio-temporal parameters indicated shorter step length, with AN showing the shortest values. AN walked slower than BN and CG. As for kinematics, AN and BN showed a nonphysiologic pattern at pelvis and hip level on the sagittal and frontal plane, with BN yielding the most abnormal values. Both AN and BN patients were characterized by high ankle plantar flexion capacity at toe-off when compared to CG. As for ankle kinetics, both AN and BN showed physiologic patterns. Stiffness at hip level was close to CG in both pathologic groups; at the ankle level, stiffness was significantly decreased in both groups, with AN displaying lower values.Conclusions: Both AN and BN were characterized by an altered gait pattern compared to CG. Biomechanical differences were evident mainly at pelvis and hip level. Loss of lean mass may lead to musculoskeletal adaptation, ultimately causing alterations in the gait pattern. HubMed – rehab