Early Life Socioeconomic Position and Later Alcohol Use: Birth Cohort Study.

Early life socioeconomic position and later alcohol use: birth cohort study.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Addiction. 2012 Nov 16;
Melotti R, Lewis G, Hickman M, Heron J, Araya R, Macleod J

AIMS: To investigate associations between socioeconomic position in early life and later alcohol use and problem use among male and female adolescents. DESIGN: Birth cohort study. SETTING: South West England. PARTICIPANTS: 2711 girls and 2379 boys with one or more measures of alcohol use or problem use at age 15. MEASUREMENTS: Exposure measures were highest parental social class, maternal education and household disposable income (all maternal self-report before school-age); outcome measures were heavy typical drinking, frequent drinking, regular binge drinking, alcohol related psychosocial problems and alcohol related behavioural problems. FINDINGS: Alcohol use and related problems were relatively common in adolescents and were not substantially different between girls and boys. However, boys were slightly more likely to report frequent drinking and girls were slightly more likely to drink heavily and to experience alcohol related psychosocial problems. Higher maternal education appeared protective in relation to alcohol related problems, particularly amongst boys. Higher household income was associated with greater risk of alcohol use and problem use, most apparently amongst girls. CONCLUSIONS: Children from higher income households in England appear to be at greater risk of some types of adolescent alcohol problems and these risks appear different in girls compared to boys. Childhood social advantage may not generally be associated with healthier behaviour in adolescence.
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Oleoylethanolamide dose-dependently attenuates cocaine-induced behaviours through a PPAR? receptor-independent mechanism.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Addict Biol. 2012 Nov 19;
Bilbao A, Blanco E, Luque-Rojas MJ, Suárez J, Palomino A, Vida M, Araos P, Bermúdez-Silva FJ, Fernández-Espejo E, Spanagel R, Rodríguez de Fonseca F

Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an acylethanolamide that acts as an agonist of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) to exert their biological functions, which include the regulation of appetite and metabolism. Increasing evidence also suggests that OEA may participate in the control of reward-related behaviours. However, direct experimental evidence for the role of the OEA-PPAR? receptor interaction in drug-mediated behaviours, such as cocaine-induced behavioural phenotypes, is lacking. The present study explored the role of OEA and its receptor PPAR? on the psychomotor and rewarding responsiveness to cocaine using behavioural tests indicative of core components of addiction. We found that acute administration of OEA (1, 5 or 20?mg/kg, i.p.) reduced spontaneous locomotor activity and attenuated psychomotor activation induced by cocaine (20?mg/kg) in C57Bl/6 mice. However, PPAR? receptor knockout mice showed normal sensitization, although OEA was capable of reducing behavioural sensitization with fewer efficacies. Furthermore, conditioned place preference and reinstatement to cocaine were intact in these mice. Our results indicate that PPAR? receptor does not play a critical, if any, role in mediating short- and long-term psychomotor and rewarding responsiveness to cocaine. However, further research is needed for the identification of the targets of OEA for its inhibitory action on cocaine-mediated responses.
HubMed – addiction


Systematic review of record linkage studies of mortality in ex-prisoners: why (good) methods matter.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Addiction. 2012 Nov 19;
Kinner SA, Forsyth S, Williams G

AIMS: World-wide, more than 30 million people move through prisons annually. Record linkage studies have identified an increased risk of death in ex-prisoners. In order to inform preventive interventions it is necessary to understand who is most at risk, when and why. Limitations of existing studies have rendered synthesis and interpretation of this literature difficult. The aim of this study was to describe methodological characteristics of existing studies and make recommendations for the design, analysis and reporting of future studies. METHODS: Systematic review of studies using record linkage to explore mortality in ex-prisoners. Based on analysis of these studies we illustrate how methodological limitations and heterogeneity of design, analysis and reporting both hamper data synthesis and create potential for misinterpretation of findings. Using data from a recent Australian study involving 42?015 ex-prisoners and 2329 observed deaths, we quantify the variation in findings associated with various approaches. RESULTS: We identified 29 publications based on 25 separate studies published 1998-2011, mainly from the United Kingdom, United States and Australia. Mortality estimates varied systematically according to features of study design and data analysis. A number of common, avoidable and significant methodological limitations were identified. Substantial heterogeneity in study design, methods of data analysis and reporting of findings was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Record linkage studies examining mortality in ex-prisoners show widely varying estimates that are influenced substantially by avoidable methodological limitations and reducible heterogeneity. Future studies should adopt best practice methods and more consistent methods of analysis and reporting, to maximize policy relevance and impact.
HubMed – addiction


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