Drug Dependence: Cancer Medicine.

Drug dependence: Cancer medicine.

Contemp Clin Dent. 2013 Jan; 4(1): 1
Damle SG

HubMed – drug

State of the globe: antimicrobial stewardship guides rationale use of antimicrobials to enable faster cure and prevent drug resistance.

J Glob Infect Dis. 2013 Apr; 5(2): 43-4
Kelkar D, Galwankar S

HubMed – drug

Temporal Multiscale Approach for Nanocarrier Motion with Simultaneous Adhesion and Hydrodynamic Interactions in Targeted Drug Delivery.

J Comput Phys. 2013 Jul 1; 244: 252-263
Radhakrishnan R, Uma B, Liu J, Ayyaswamy PS, Eckmann DM

We present a fluctuating hydrodynamics approach and a hybrid approach combining fluctuating hydrodynamics with generalized Langevin dynamics to resolve the motion of a nanocarrier when subject to both hydrodynamic interactions and adhesive interactions. Specifically, using these approaches, we compute equilibrium probability distributions at constant temperature as well as velocity autocorrelation functions of the nanocarrier subject to thermal motion in a quiescent Newtonian fluid medium, when tethered by a harmonic spring force mimicking a tether due to a single receptor-ligand bond. We demonstrate that the thermal equipartition of translation, rotation, and spring degrees of freedom are preserved by our formalism while simultaneously resolving the nature of the hydrodynamic correlations. Additionally, we evaluate the potential of mean force (or free energy density) along a specified reaction coordinate to faciltate extensive conformational sampling of the nanocarrier motion. We show that our results are in excellent agreement with analytical results and Monte Carlo simulations, thereby validating our methodologies. The frameworks we have presented provide a comprehensive platform for temporal multiscale modeling of hydrodynamic and microscopic interactions mediating nanocarrier motion and adhesion in vascular targeted drug delivery. HubMed – drug

[New drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and interdisciplinary aspects of chronic hepatitis B virus infection].

Orv Hetil. 2013 Jul 1; 154(29): 1142-50
Horváth G

Hepatitis B virus infection is a significant health problem worldwide. The prevalence of HBsAg positivity is about 0.5-0.7% in Hungary. Liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma develops in 15-40% of chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients without treatment. The ultimate goal of treatment would be to clear the virus from the infected subject; however, in practice, we can usually achieve long term suppression of viral replicaton with consequent prevention of the progression of liver disease, and reduction of the risk of the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, there are two different treatment strategies for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection: therapy of finite duration with interferon or long-term treatment with nucleot(s)ide analogues. Entecavir and tenofovir are the two most effective nucleot(s)ide analogues with high barrier to resistance, thus, they can be confidently used as first-line treatments. Lamivudine engenders very high rates of resistance; adefovir is less efficacious than entecavir or tenofovir, and also engendering higher rates of resistance, thus none of them are recommended for initiation of a new treatment. Tenofovir is the treatment option in cases with lamivudine resistance, because entecavir has an unfavourable resistance-profile in this group of patients. Interferon is contraindicated during pregnancy. Should treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection be necessary during pregnancy, tenofovir, listed by the FDA as pregnancy category B drug, is to be preferred. Nucleot(s)ide analogues may be used to reduce the risk of intra-uterine and perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus, which may occur in a proportion of newborns from highly viremic mothers, despite active and passive immunization. Similarly, tenofovir is recommended in the last trimester of pregnancy for women with high viremia. The risk of reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection is high in HBsAg positive patients, and in patients with occult hepatitis B virus infection during and after chemotherapy or immunosuppressive treatment, including biological response modifiers (particularly related to rituximab therapy). Therefore, all candidates for these treatments should be screened for HBsAg and anti-HBc. Pre-emptive nucleot(s)ide analogues therapy should be initiated in patients with HBsAg positivity, and patients with occult hepatitis B virus infection. The role of general practitioners and occupational health physicians in the identification and the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection is stressed. Issues of high risk population groups, candidacy for vaccination, and methodology of active and passive immunisation are also reviewed in this paper. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 1142-1150. HubMed – drug

A cantilever sensor with an integrated optical readout for detection of enzymatically produced homocysteine.

IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst. 2009 Dec; 3(6): 415-23
Koev ST, Fernandes R, Bentley WE, Ghodssi R

Microcantilever sensors have been recognized as a promising sensor platform for various chemical and biological applications. One of their major limitations is that the measurement of cantilever displacement typically involves elaborate off-chip setups with free-space optics. An improved device, known as the optical cantilever, has been proposed recently to eliminate the external optics. The response of the optical cantilever is measured on-chip through integrated waveguides. However, this method has been previously demonstrated only for devices operating in air, whereas most chemical and biological samples are in solution state. We present the first optical cantilever capable of operation in liquid. We test it with the detection of homocysteine with a minimal concentration of 10 muM. The minimal measurable cantilever displacement and surface stress are 5 nm and 1 mN/m, respectively. The presented device will be used in studies of a homocysteine-producing bacterial pathway for the purpose of drug discovery. It can also be extended to various other chemical- or biological-sensing applications by selecting an appropriate surface coating. HubMed – drug

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