Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Tumor Budding Cells, Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-Type Cells in Pancreatic Cancer.

Tumor budding cells, cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-type cells in pancreatic cancer.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Front Oncol. 2012; 2: 209
Karamitopoulou E

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Moreover, PDAC escapes early detection and resists treatment. Multiple combinations of genetic alterations are known to occur in PDAC including mutational activation of KRAS, inactivation of p16/CDKN2A and SMAD4 (DPC4) and dysregulation of PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling. Through their interaction with Wingless-INT pathway, the downstream molecules of these pathways have been implicated in the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Emerging evidence has demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs), small populations of which have been identified in PDAC, and EMT-type cells play critical roles in drug resistance, invasion, and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. EMT may be histologically represented by the presence of tumor budding which is described as the occurrence of single tumor cells or small clusters (<5) of dedifferentiated cells at the invasive front of gastrointestinal (including colorectal, oesophageal, gastric, and ampullary) carcinomas and is linked to poor prognosis. Tumor budding has recently been shown to occur frequently in PDAC and to be associated with adverse clinicopathological features and decreased disease-free and overall survival. The aim of this review is to present a short overview on the morphological and molecular aspects that underline the relationship between tumor budding cells, CSCs, and EMT-type cells in PDAC. HubMed – drug


Crosstalk between Bcl-2 family and Ras family small GTPases: potential cell fate regulation?

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Front Oncol. 2012; 2: 206
Kang J, Pervaiz S

Cell fate regulation is a function of diverse cell signaling pathways that promote cell survival and or inhibit cell death execution. In this regard, the role of the Bcl-2 family in maintaining a tight balance between cell death and cell proliferation has been extensively studied. The conventional dogma links cell fate regulation by the Bcl-2 family to its effect on mitochondrial permeabilization and apoptosis amplification. However, recent evidence provide a novel mechanism for death regulation by the Bcl-2 family via modulating cellular redox metabolism. For example overexpression of Bcl-2 has been shown to contribute to a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu and down-regulation of cellular superoxide levels enhanced death sensitivity of Bcl-2 overexpressing cells. Interestingly, gene knockdown of the small GTPase Rac1 or pharmacological inhibition of its activity also reverted death phenotype in Bcl-2 expressing cells. This appears to be a function of an interaction between Bcl-2 and Rac1. Similar functional associations have been described between the Bcl-2 family and other members of the Ras superfamily. These interactions at the mitochondria provide novel opportunities for strategic therapeutic targeting of drug-resistant cancers.
HubMed – drug


Nasal drug delivery devices: characteristics and performance in a clinical perspective-a review.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2013 Feb; 3(1): 42-62
Djupesland PG

Nasal delivery is the logical choice for topical treatment of local diseases in the nose and paranasal sinuses such as allergic and non-allergic rhinitis and sinusitis. The nose is also considered an attractive route for needle-free vaccination and for systemic drug delivery, especially when rapid absorption and effect are desired. In addition, nasal delivery may help address issues related to poor bioavailability, slow absorption, drug degradation, and adverse events in the gastrointestinal tract and avoids the first-pass metabolism in the liver. However, when considering nasal delivery devices and mechanisms, it is important to keep in mind that the prime purpose of the nasal airway is to protect the delicate lungs from hazardous exposures, not to serve as a delivery route for drugs and vaccines. The narrow nasal valve and the complex convoluted nasal geometry with its dynamic cyclic physiological changes provide efficient filtration and conditioning of the inspired air, enhance olfaction, and optimize gas exchange and fluid retention during exhalation. However, the potential hurdles these functional features impose on efficient nasal drug delivery are often ignored. With this background, the advantages and limitations of existing and emerging nasal delivery devices and dispersion technologies are reviewed with focus on their clinical performance. The role and limitations of the in vitro testing in the FDA guidance for nasal spray pumps and pressurized aerosols (pressurized metered-dose inhalers) with local action are discussed. Moreover, the predictive value and clinical utility of nasal cast studies and computer simulations of nasal airflow and deposition with computer fluid dynamics software are briefly discussed. New and emerging delivery technologies and devices with emphasis on Bi-Directional™ delivery, a novel concept for nasal delivery that can be adapted to a variety of dispersion technologies, are described in more depth.
HubMed – drug


Common Variants of Drosophila melanogaster Cyp6d2 Cause Camptothecin Sensitivity and Synergize With Loss of Brca2.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

G3 (Bethesda). 2013 Jan; 3(1): 91-9
Thomas AM, Hui C, South A, McVey M

Many chemotherapeutic agents selectively target rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells, by causing DNA damage that leads to genome instability and cell death. We used Drosophila melanogaster to study how mutations in key DNA repair genes affect an organism’s response to chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we focused on camptothecin and its derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, which are type I topoisomerase inhibitors that create DNA double-strand breaks in rapidly dividing cells. Here, we describe two polymorphisms in Drosophila Cyp6d2 that result in extreme sensitivity to camptothecin but not topotecan or irinotecan. We confirmed that the sensitivity was due to mutations in Cyp6d2 by rescuing the defect with a wild-type copy of Cyp6d2. In addition, we showed that combining a cyp6d2 mutation with mutations in Drosophila brca2 results in extreme sensitivity to camptothecin. Given the frequency of the Cyp6d2 polymorphisms in publcly available Drosophila stocks, our study demonstrates the need for caution when interpreting results from drug sensitivity screens in Drosophila and other model organisms. Furthermore, our findings illustrate how genetic background effects can be important when determining the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in various DNA repair mutants.
HubMed – drug


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