Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Treatment Outcomes of Treatment-Naïve Hepatitis C Patients Co-Infected With HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Cohorts.

Treatment Outcomes of Treatment-Naïve Hepatitis C Patients Co-Infected with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Cohorts.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e55373
Davies A, Singh KP, Shubber Z, Ducros P, Mills EJ, Cooke G, Ford N

Co-infection with Hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV is common and HIV accelerates hepatic disease progression due to HCV. However, access to HCV treatment is limited and success rates are generally poor.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess HCV treatment outcomes in observational cohorts. Two databases (Medline and EMBASE) were searched using a compound search strategy for cohort studies reporting HCV treatment outcomes (as determined by a sustained virological response, SVR) in HIV-positive patients initiating HCV treatment for the first time.40 studies were included for review, providing outcomes on 5339 patients from 17 countries. The pooled proportion of patients achieving SVR was 38%. Significantly poorer outcomes were observed for patients infected with HCV genotypes 1 or 4 (pooled SVR 24.5%), compared to genotypes 2 or 3 (pooled SVR 59.8%). The pooled proportion of patients who discontinued treatment due to drug toxicities (reported by 33 studies) was low, at 4.3% (3.3-5.3%). Defaulting from treatment, reported by 33 studies, was also low (5.1%, 3.5-6.6%), as was on-treatment mortality (35 studies, 0.1% (0-0.2%)).These results, reported under programmatic conditions, are comparable to those reported in randomised clinical trials, and show that although HCV treatment outcomes are generally poor in HIV co-infected patients, those infected with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 have outcomes comparable to HIV-negative patients.
HubMed – drug


Screening of Circulating TGF-? Levels and Its Clinicopathological Significance in Human Breast Cancer.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Anticancer Res. 2013 Feb; 33(2): 737-42
Panis C, Herrera AC, Victorino VJ, Aranome AM, Cecchini R

Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-?1) participation in breast cancer development and metastasis is well-established, however, the clinical meaning of its circulating levels in women with breast cancer is poorly understood. Aim: To characterize the levels of TGF-?1 in plasma from women with breast cancer and to associate them with the main clinical factors associated with disease prognosis.TGF-?1 levels were measured by Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Clinicopathological data were also assessed.Women bearing triple-negative tumors presented significantly reduced levels of this cytokine when compared to the other subtypes (p=0.0338). Patients with metastases exhibited lower levels of TGF-?1 than the non-metastatic cohort (p=0.0442). Patients with early-onset disease had the highest plasma TGF-?1 levels (p=0.0036). Doxorubicin chemotherapy induced a reduction in TGF-?1 level, promptly after drug infusion (p=0.0494). Patients with TGF-?1 levels lower than 20 pg/ml exhibited a tendency to have a reduced overall survival in a 40-month follow-up.Lower levels of circulating TGF-?1 are associated with a poor disease prognosis.
HubMed – drug


Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions between Ondansetron and Tamoxifen in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats with DMBA-induced Mammary Tumor.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Anticancer Res. 2013 Feb; 33(2): 521-8
Yang SH, Suh JH, Lee MG, Kim SH

Tamoxifen, which is used to treat breast cancer, and ondansetron, used for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea, are commonly metabolized via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D subfamily and 3A1/2 in rats, as in humans. This study was conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions between ondansetron and tamoxifen after intravenous and oral administration of ondansetron (both 8 mg/kg) and/or tamoxifen (2 and 10 mg/kg for intravenous and oral administration, respectively), in rats bearing 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammarian tumors (DMBA rats), used as an animal model of human breast cancer. The total area under the plasma concentration-time curve, from time zero to infinity (AUC) of tamoxifen was significantly greater after both intravenous and oral administration with ondansetron, compared to that after administration of tamoxifen-alone. The hepatic and intestinal metabolism of tamoxifen in DMBA rats was inhibited by ondansetron. Taken together, the significant increase in tamoxifen AUC in DMBA rats after intravenous or oral administration with ondansetron may be attributed to non-competitive hepatic (intravenous) and competitive intestinal (oral) inhibition of CYP2D subfamily- and 3A1/2-mediated tamoxifen metabolism by ondansetron.
HubMed – drug


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