Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation: Transfersomes: A Novel Vesicular Carrier for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Sertraline: Development, Characterization, and Performance Evaluation.

Transfersomes: a novel vesicular carrier for enhanced transdermal delivery of sertraline: development, characterization, and performance evaluation.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Sci Pharm. 2012 Dec; 80(4): 1061-80
Gupta A, Aggarwal G, Singla S, Arora R

The aim of the present study was to investigate transfersomes as a transdermal delivery system for the poorly soluble drug, sertraline, in order to overcome the troubles associated with its oral delivery. Different transfersomal formulations were prepared with non-ionic surfactant (span 80), soya lecithin, and carbopol 940 by the rotary evaporation sonication method. The prepared formulations were characterized for light microscopy, particle size analysis, drug entrapment, turbidity, drug content, rheological studies, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation, and stability studies. The optimized formulation was evaluated for in vivo studies using the modified forced swim model test. FTIR studies showed compatibility of the drug with excipients. The result revealed that sertraline in all of the formulations was successfully entrapped with uniform drug content. Transfersomal gel containing 1.6% of the drug and 20% of span 80 was concluded to be the optimized formulation (EL-SP4), as it showed maximum drug entrapment (90.4±0.15%) and cumulative percent drug release(73.8%). The ex vivo permeation profile of EL-SP4 was compared with the transfersomal suspension, control gel, and drug solution. The transfersomal gel showed a significantly higher (p<0.05) cumulative amount of drug permeation and flux along with lower lag time than the drug solution and drug gel. It also owed to better applicability due to the higher viscosity imparted by the gel rather than the transfersomal suspension, and no skin irritation was observed. The modified forced swim test in mice revealed that the transfersomal gel had better antidepressant activity as compared to the control gel. Thus, the study substantiated that the transfersomal gel can be used as a feasible alternative to the conventional formulations of sertraline with advanced permeation characteristics for transdermal application. HubMed – drug


Formulation and characterization of benzoyl peroxide gellified emulsions.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Sci Pharm. 2012 Dec; 80(4): 1045-60
Thakur NK, Bharti P, Mahant S, Rao R

The present investigation was carried out with the objective of formulating a gellified emulsion of benzoyl peroxide, an anti-acne agent. The formulations were prepared using four different vegetable oils, viz. almond oil, jojoba oil, sesame oil, and wheat germ oil, owing to their emollient properties. The idea was to overcome the skin irritation and dryness caused by benzoyl peroxide, making the formulation more tolerable. The gellified emulsions were characterized for their homogeneity, rheology, spreadability, drug content, and stability. In vitro permeation studies were performed to check the drug permeation through rat skin. The formulations were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their acute skin irritation potential. The results were compared with those obtained for the marketed formulation. Later, the histopathological examination of the skin treated with various formulations was carried out. Formulation F3 was found to have caused a very mild dysplastic change to the epidermis. On the other hand, the marketed formulation led to the greatest dysplastic change. Hence, it was concluded that formulation F3, containing sesame oil (6%w/w), was the optimized formulation. It exhibited the maximum drug release and anti-microbial activity, in addition to the least skin irritation potential.
HubMed – drug


Systematic development of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of atorvastatin with improved bioavailability potential.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Sci Pharm. 2012 Dec; 80(4): 1027-43
Khan F, Islam MS, Roni MA, Jalil RU

The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) with a high drug load of poorly water-soluble atorvastatin for the enhancement of dissolution and oral bioavailability. Solubility of atorvastatin in oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant was determined. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed by the aqueous titration method, and formulations were developed based on the optimum excipient combinations. A high drug load (10% w/w) was achieved with a combination of oleic acid, Tween 80, and polyethylene glycol 400, ensuring the maximum dissolution property (in the case of SES6). Effects of lipids and surfactants on physical properties of SEDDS such as in vitro emulsification efficiency in terms of self-emulsification time, emulsion droplet size, and percent transmittance were measured. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a higher amount of surfactants significantly increased dissolution of ATV while decreasing emulsion droplet size and emulsification time. About a four-fold increase in dissolution was achieved by SEDDS compared to pure ATV powder. Overall, this study suggests that dissolution and oral bioavailability of ATV could be improved by SEDDS technology.
HubMed – drug


Ameliorative effects of taurine against methimazole-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Sci Pharm. 2012 Dec; 80(4): 987-99
Heidari R, Babaei H, Eghbal MA

Methimazole is used as an antithyroid drug to control the symptoms of hyperthyroidism and maintain patients in a euthyroid state. Administration of this drug is associated with agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity, which are the two most significant adverse effects. The present investigation was conducted to study the protective role of taurine against cytotoxicity induced by methimazole and its proposed reactive intermediary metabolite, N-methylthiourea, in an in vitro model of isolated rat hepatocytes.At different points in time, markers such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and hepatocyte glutathione content were evaluated.Treating hepatocytes with methimazole resulted in cytotoxicity characterized by the reduction in cell viability, an increase in ROS formation and lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and a reduction in cellular glutathione content. Furthermore, a significant amount of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was formed when rat hepatocytes were treated with methimazole. N-methylthiourea toxicity was accompanied by a reduction in cellular GSH content, but no significant changes in lipid peroxidation, ROS formation, GSSG production, or changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were detected. Administration of taurine (200 ?M) effectively reduced the toxic effects of methimazole or its metabolite in isolated rat hepatocytes.
HubMed – drug


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